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Protocol - Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders - Adult

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Description:

The Autism Spectrum Quotient for Adults is a 50-question self-report instrument designed to screen ages 16 years and older for symptoms of autism. A scoring key is also included. This instrument comes from the United Kingdom, where age 16 years is more readily considered an adult.

Protocol:

1. I prefer to do things with others rather than on my own.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

2. I prefer to do things the same way over and over again.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

3. If I try to imagine something, I find it very easy to create a picture in my mind.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

4. I frequently get so strongly absorbed in one thing that I lose sight of other things.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

5. I often notice small sounds when others do not.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

6. I usually notice car number plates or similar strings of information.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

7. Other people frequently tell me that what I’ve said is impolite, even though I think it is polite.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

8. When I’m reading a story, I can easily imagine what the characters might look like.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

9. I am fascinated by dates.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

10. In a social group, I can easily keep track of several different people’s conversations.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

11. I find social situations easy.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

12. I tend to notice details that others do not.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

13. I would rather go to a library than a party.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

14. I find making up stories easy.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

15. I find myself drawn more strongly to people than to things.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

16. I tend to have very strong interests which I get upset about if I can’t pursue.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

17. I enjoy social chit-chat.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

18. When I talk, it isn’t always easy for others to get a word in edgeways.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

19. I am fascinated by numbers.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

20. When I’m reading a story, I find it difficult to work out the characters’ intentions.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

21. I don’t particularly enjoy reading fiction.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

22. I find it hard to make new friends.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

23. I notice patterns in things all the time.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

24. I would rather go to the theatre than a museum.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

25. It does not upset me if my daily routine is disturbed.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

26. I frequently find that I don’t know how to keep a conversation going.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

27. I find it easy to "read between the lines" when someone is talking to me.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

28. I usually concentrate more on the whole picture, rather than the small details.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

29. I am not very good at remembering phone numbers.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

30. I don’t usually notice small changes in a situation, or a person’s appearance.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

31. I know how to tell if someone listening to me is getting bored.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

32. I find it easy to do more than one thing at once.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

33. When I talk on the phone, I’m not sure when it’s my turn to speak.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

34. I enjoy doing things spontaneously.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

35. I am often the last to understand the point of a joke.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

36. I find it easy to work out what someone is thinking or feeling just by looking at their face.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

37. If there is an interruption, I can switch back to what I was doing very quickly.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

38. I am good at social chit-chat.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

39. People often tell me that I keep going on and on about the same thing.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

40. When I was young, I used to enjoy playing games involving pretending with other children.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

41. I like to collect information about categories of things (e.g., types of car, types of bird, types of train, types of plant, etc.).

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

42. I find it difficult to imagine what it would be like to be someone else.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

43. I like to plan any activities I participate in carefully.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

44. I enjoy social occasions.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

45. I find it difficult to work out people’s intentions.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

46. New situations make me anxious.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

47. I enjoy meeting new people.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

48. I am a good diplomat.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

49. I am not very good at remembering people’s date of birth.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

50. I find it very easy to play games with children that involve pretending.

[ ] Definitely agree

[ ] Slightly agree

[ ] Slightly disagree

[ ] Definitely disagree

Scoring Key

Responses that score 1 point are marked. Other responses score 0. For total score, sum all items. Minimum score possible is 0, Maximum score possible is 50. A score of 32 or above is highly predictive of Autism Spectrum disorders in adults.

Definitely

agree

Slightly

agree

Slightly

disagree

Definitely

disagree

1.

I prefer to do things with others rather than on my own.

1

1

2.

I prefer to do things the same way over and over again.

1

1

3.

If I try to imagine something, I find it very easy to create a picture in my mind.

1

1

4.

I frequently get so strongly absorbed in one thing that I lose sight of other things.

1

1

5.

I often notice small sounds when others do not.

1

1

6.

I usually notice car number plates or similar strings of information.

1

1

7.

Other people frequently tell me that what I’ve said is impolite, even though I think it is polite.

1

1

8.

When I’m reading a story, I can easily imagine what the characters might look like.

1

1

9.

I am fascinated by dates.

1

1

10.

In a social group, I can easily keep track of several different people’s conversations.

1

1

11.

I find social situations easy.

1

1

12.

I tend to notice details that others do not.

1

1

13.

I would rather go to a library than a party.

1

1

14.

I find making up stories easy.

1

1

15.

I find myself drawn more strongly to people than to things.

1

1

16.

I tend to have very strong interests which I get upset about if I can’t pursue.

1

1

17.

I enjoy social chit-chat.

1

1

18.

When I talk, it isn’t always easy for others to get a word in edgeways.

1

1

19.

I am fascinated by numbers.

1

1

20.

When I’m reading a story, I find it difficult to work out the characters’ intentions.

1

1

21.

I don’t particularly enjoy reading fiction.

1

1

22.

I find it hard to make new friends.

1

1

23.

I notice patterns in things all the time.

1

1

24.

I would rather go to the theatre than a museum.

1

1

25.

It does not upset me if my daily routine is disturbed.

1

1

26.

I frequently find that I don’t know how to keep a conversation going.

1

1

27.

I find it easy to "read between the lines" when someone is talking to me.

1

1

28.

I usually concentrate more on the whole picture, rather than the small details.

1

1

29.

I am not very good at remembering phone numbers.

1

1

30.

I don’t usually notice small changes in a situation, or a person’s appearance.

1

1

31.

I know how to tell if someone listening to me is getting bored.

1

1

32.

I find it easy to do more than one thing at once.

1

1

33.

When I talk on the phone, I’m not sure when it’s my turn to speak.

1

1

34.

I enjoy doing things spontaneously.

1

1

35.

I am often the last to understand the point of a joke.

1

1

36.

I find it easy to work out what someone is thinking or feeling just by looking at their face.

1

1

37.

If there is an interruption, I can switch back to what I was doing very quickly.

1

1

38.

I am good at social chit-chat.

1

1

39.

People often tell me that I keep going on and on about the same thing.

1

1

40.

When I was young, I used to enjoy playing games involving pretending with other children.

1

1

41.

I like to collect information about categories of things (e.g., types of car, types of bird, types of train, types of plant, etc.).

1

1

42.

I find it difficult to imagine what it would be like to be someone else.

1

1

43.

I like to plan any activities I participate in carefully.

1

1

44.

I enjoy social occasions.

1

1

45.

I find it difficult to work out people’s intentions.

1

1

46.

New situations make me anxious.

1

1

47.

I enjoy meeting new people.

1

1

48.

I am a good diplomat.

1

1

49.

I am not very good at remembering people’s date of birth.

1

1

50.

I find it very easy to play games with children that involve pretending.

1

1

Protocol Name from Source:

The Autism Spectrum Quotient-Adult Version

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self- or proxy-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult, Senior

Participants:

Participants ages 16 years and older

Specific Instructions:

None

Selection Rationale

The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was vetted against similar protocols and was selected because it is a nonproprietary, free instrument that is low burden to investigators and respondents and is available for a variety of age ranges.

Language

Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Norwegian, Persian, Portugese, Romanian, Slovenian, Spanish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder Assessment Score 3075509 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Autism disorders adult proto 62738-0 LOINC
Process and Review

Expert Review Panel 4 (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

· Revised description of the measure

Source

Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5-17.

General References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

Ashwood, K. L., Gillan, N., Horder, J., Hayward, H., Woodhouse, E., McEwen, F. S., Findon, J., Eklund, H., Spain, D., Wilson, C. E., Cadman, T., Young, S., Stoencheva, V., Murphy, C. M., Robertson, D., Charman, T., Bolton, P., Glaser, K., Asherson, P., Simonoff, E., & Murphy, D.G. (2016). Predicting the diagnosis of autism in adults using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire. Psychological Medicine, 46(12), 2595-2604.

Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC), Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2006 Principal Investigators. (2009). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders-Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 58(10), 1-20.

Hadjikhani, N., Zürcher, N. R., Rogier, O., Hippolyte, L., Lemonnier, E., Ruest, T., Ward, N., Lassalle, A., Gillberg, N., Helles, A., Gillber, C., Solomon, P., Prkachin, K. M., & Gillberg, C. (2014). Emotional contagion for pain is intact in autism spectrum disorders. Translational Psychiatry, 4(1), e343.

Uzefovsky, F., Allison, C., Smith, P., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2016). Brief Report: The Go/No-Go Task Online: Inhibitory control deficits in autism in a large sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(8), 2774-2779.

Protocol ID:

120901

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX120901_Anxious_New_Situations PX120901460000 New situations make me anxious. 4 N/A
PX120901_Collect_Categories PX120901410000 I like to collect information about categories of things (e.g. types of car, types of bird, types of train, types of plant, etc.). 4 N/A
PX120901_Daily_Routine PX120901250000 It does not upset me if my daily routine is disturbed. 4 N/A
PX120901_Difficulty_Imagining_Being_Someone_Else PX120901420000 I find it difficult to imagine what it would be like to be someone else. 4 N/A
PX120901_Difficulty_Making_Friends PX120901220000 I find it hard to make new friends. 4 N/A
PX120901_Difficulty_Remembering_Birth_Dates PX120901490000 I am not very good at remembering people's date of birth. 4 N/A
PX120901_Difficulty_Remembering_Phone_Numbers PX120901290000 I am not very good at remembering phone numbers. 4 N/A
PX120901_Difficulty_Understanding_Jokes PX120901350000 I am often the last to understand the point of a joke. 4 N/A
PX120901_Difficulty_Understanding_Story_Characters PX120901200000 When I'm reading a story, I find it difficult to work out the characters' intentions. 4 N/A
PX120901_Difficulty_With_Conversation PX120901260000 I frequently find that I don't know how to keep a conversation going. 4 N/A
PX120901_Difficulty_With_Phone_Conversations PX120901330000 When I talk on the phone, I'm not sure when it's my turn to speak. 4 N/A
PX120901_Difficulty_Working_Out_Intentions PX120901450000 I find it difficult to work out people's intentions. 4 N/A
PX120901_Does_Not_Enjoy_Fiction PX120901210000 I don't particularly enjoy reading fiction. 4 N/A
PX120901_Dominate_Conversation PX120901180000 When I talk, it isn't always easy for others to get a word in edgeways. 4 N/A
PX120901_Drawn_To_People PX120901150000 I find myself drawn more strongly to people than to things. 4 N/A
PX120901_Easily_Imagine_Story_Characters PX120901080000 When I'm reading a story, I can easily imagine what the characters might look like. 4 N/A
PX120901_Easy_Create_Picture_Imagination PX120901030000 If I try to imagine something, I find it very easy to create a picture in my mind. 4 N/A
PX120901_Easy_To_Multitask PX120901320000 I find it easy to do more than one thing at once. 4 N/A
PX120901_Easy_To_Play_Pretend_Games PX120901500000 I find it very easy to play games with children that involve pretending. 4 N/A
PX120901_Easy_To_Read_Facial_Expression PX120901360000 I find it easy to work out what someone is thinking or feeling just by looking at their face. 4 N/A
PX120901_Easy_To_Switch_After_Interruption PX120901370000 If there is an interruption, I can switch back to what I was doing very quickly. 4 N/A
PX120901_Enjoy_Chit_Chat PX120901170000 I enjoy social chit-chat. 4 N/A
PX120901_Enjoy_Meeting_New_People PX120901470000 I enjoy meeting new people. 4 Variable Mapping
PX120901_Enjoy_Planning_Activities PX120901430000 I like to plan any activities I participate in carefully. 4 N/A
PX120901_Enjoy_Social_Occasions PX120901440000 I enjoy social occasions. 4 N/A
PX120901_Enjoy_Spontaneity PX120901340000 I enjoy doing things spontaneously. 4 N/A
PX120901_Fascinated_By_Numbers PX120901190000 I am fascinated by numbers. 4 N/A
PX120901_Fascinated_Dates PX120901090000 I am fascinated by dates. 4 N/A
PX120901_Good_At_Chitchat PX120901380000 I am good at social chit-chat. 4 N/A
PX120901_Good_Diplomat PX120901480000 I am a good diplomat. 4 N/A
PX120901_Go_On_About_One_Thing PX120901390000 People often tell me that I keep going on and on about the same thing. 4 N/A
PX120901_Keep_Track_Different_Conversations PX120901100000 In a social group, I can easily keep track of several different people's conversations. 4 N/A
PX120901_Library_Over_Party PX120901130000 I would rather go to a library than a party. 4 N/A
PX120901_Make_Up_Stories_Easily PX120901140000 I find making up stories easy. 4 N/A
PX120901_Notice_Details PX120901120000 I tend to notice details that others do not. 4 N/A
PX120901_Notice_License_Plates PX120901060000 I usually notice car number plates or similar strings of information. 4 N/A
PX120901_Notice_Patterns PX120901230000 I notice patterns in things all the time. 4 N/A
PX120901_Notice_Small_Changes PX120901300000 I don't usually notice small changes in a situation, or a person's appearance. 4 N/A
PX120901_Notice_Small_Sounds PX120901050000 I often notice small sounds when others do not. 4 N/A
PX120901_People_Call_Me_Impolite PX120901070000 Other people frequently tell me that what I've said is impolite, even though I think it is polite. 4 N/A
PX120901_Prefer_Do_Things_Same_Way PX120901020000 I prefer to do things the same way over and over again. 4 N/A
PX120901_Prefer_Do_Things_With_Others PX120901010000 I prefer to do things with others rather than on my own. 4 N/A
PX120901_Pretend_With_Other_Children PX120901400000 When I was young, I used to enjoy playing games involving pretending with other children. 4 N/A
PX120901_Read_Between_Conversation_Lines PX120901270000 I find it easy to "read between the lines" when someone is talking to me. 4 N/A
PX120901_Social_Situations_Easy PX120901110000 I find social situations easy. 4 N/A
PX120901_Strongly_Absorbed PX120901040000 I frequently get so strongly absorbed in one thing that I lose sight of other things. 4 N/A
PX120901_Strong_Interests PX120901160000 I tend to have very strong interests which I get upset about if I can't pursue. 4 N/A
PX120901_Tell_If_Boring_Others PX120901310000 I know how to tell if someone listening to me is getting bored. 4 N/A
PX120901_Theatre_Over_Museum PX120901240000 I would rather go to the theatre than a museum. 4 N/A
PX120901_Whole_Picture_Over_Details PX120901280000 I usually concentrate more on the whole picture, rather than the small details. 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Release Date:

May 12, 2010

Definition

A questionnaire to assess autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a group of developmental problems that includes autism, Asperger’s syndrome, Rett syndrome, and the category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified. ASD is characterized by a lack of social interaction, difficulties in verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior (APA, 2000).

Purpose

This measure is used to screen an individual for the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it is estimated that between 1 in 80 and 1 in 240 children, with an average of 1 in 110 children, in the United States have an ASD (CDC, 2009). Autism displays a familial pattern because first-order relatives of those with ASD are at greater risk for autism and other developmental problems than the general population (APA, 2000).

Keywords

Psychiatric, Asperger’s syndrome, social impairment, repetitive behavior, Rett syndrome, communication disability