Loading…

Protocol - Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders - Child

Add to My Toolkit
Description:

The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST), also known as the Social and Communication Development Questionnaire, is a 37-question, parent-report instrument. It is based on a variety of behavioral descriptions of the core features of the autism spectrum (social impairments, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors) from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10), and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV).

Protocol:

Please read the following questions carefully, and indicate the appropriate answer.

1. Does s/he join in playing games with other children easily?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

2. Does s/he come up to you spontaneously for a chat?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

3. Was s/he speaking by 2 years old?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

4. Does s/he enjoy sports?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

5. Is it important to him/her to fit in with the peer group?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

6. Does s/he appear to notice unusual details that others miss?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

7. Does s/he tend to take things literally?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

8. When s/he was 3 years old, did s/he spend a lot of time pretending (e.g., play-acting being a superhero, or holding teddy’s tea parties)?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

9. Does s/he like to do things over and over again, in the same way all the time?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

10. Does s/he find it easy to interact with other children?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

11. Can s/he keep a two-way conversation going?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

12. Can s/he read appropriately for his/her age?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

13. Does s/he mostly have the same interests as his/her peers?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

14. Does s/he have an interest which takes up so much time that s/he does little else?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

15. Does s/he have friends, rather than just acquaintances?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

16. Does s/he often bring you things s/he is interested in to show you?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

17. Does s/he enjoy joking around?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

18. Does s/he have difficulty understanding the rules for polite behavior?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

19. Does s/he appear to have an unusual memory for details?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

20. Is his/her voice unusual (e.g., overly adult, flat, or very monotonous)?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

21. Are people important to him/her?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

22. Can s/he dress him/herself?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

23. Is s/he good at turn-taking in conversation?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

24. Does s/he play imaginatively with other children, and engage in role-play?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

25. Does s/he often do or say things that are tactless or socially inappropriate?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

26. Can s/he count to 50 without leaving out any numbers?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

27. Does s/he make normal eye-contact?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

28. Does s/he have any unusual and repetitive movements?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

29. Is his/her social behavior very one-sided and always on his/her own terms?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

30. Does s/he sometimes say "you" or "s/he" when s/he means "I"?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

31. Does s/he prefer imaginative activities such as play-acting or story-telling, rather than numbers or lists of facts?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

32. Does s/he sometimes lose the listener because of not explaining what s/he is talking about?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

33. Can s/he ride a bicycle (even if with stabilizers)?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

34. Does s/he try to impose routines on himself/herself, or on others, in such a way that it causes problems?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

35. Does s/he care how s/he is perceived by the rest of the group?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

36. Does s/he often turn conversations to his/her favorite subject rather than following what the other person wants to talk about?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

37. Does s/he have odd or unusual phrases?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

SPECIAL NEEDS SECTION

Please complete as appropriate

38. Have teachers/health visitors ever expressed any concerns about his/her development?

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

If Yes, please specify..................................................................................................

39. Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?

Language delay

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

Hyperactivity/Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD)

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

Hearing or visual difficulties

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

Autism Spectrum Condition, including Asperger’s Syndrome

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

A physical disability

[ ] Yes

[ ] No

Other (please specify)…………………………………………..

Scoring Instructions

Score "1" if the respondent answers "No" to questions 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 21, 23, 24, 27, 31, and 35. Score "1" if the respondent answers "Yes" to questions 6, 7, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 25, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 36, and 37. Sum all "1’s" to get a total score. Maximum score possible is 31, cut-off currently is 15 for possible ASD or related social-communication difficulties. Questions that are not scored are controls.

Protocol Name from Source:

The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self- or proxy-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Child

Participants:

Parent report for a child 3-11 years old.

Specific Instructions:

None

Selection Rationale

The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) was selected because it is a relatively low-burden, parent-reported protocol that covers the various domains of the spectrum and has been used in a large twin study in the United Kingdom.

Language

Dutch, English, French, Greek, Latvian, Norwegian, Persian, Romanian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Child Autism Spectrum Disorder Assessment Score 3075511 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Autism disorders child proto 62740-6 LOINC
Process and Review

Expert Review Panel 4 (ERP 4) reviewed the measures in the Neurology, Psychiatric, and Psychosocial domains.

Guidance from ERP 4 included the following:

  • Revised description of measure

Source

Scott, F., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary development of UK screen for mainstream primary-school children. Autism, 6(1), 9-31.

General References

American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC), Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2006 Principal Investigators. (2009). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders-Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 58(10), 1-20.

O’Nions, E., Tick, B., Rijsdijk, F., Happé, F., Plomin, R., Ronald, A., & Viding, E. (2015). Examining the genetic and environmental associations between autistic social and communication deficits and psychopathic callous-unemotional traits. PLoS ONE, 10(9), e0134331.

Scott, F., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary development of UK screen for mainstream primary-school children. Autism, 6(1), 9-31.

Taylor, M. J., Robinson, E. B., Happé, F., Bolton, P., Freeman, D., & Ronald, A. (2015). A longitudinal twin study of the association between childhood autistic traits and psychotic experiences in adolescence. Molecular Autism, 6, 44.

Williams, J., Scott, F., Stott, C., Allison, C., Bolton, P., Baron-Cohen, S. & Brayne, C. (2005). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Test accuracy. Autism, 9(1), 45-68.

Protocol ID:

120903

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX120903_Care_How_Perceived PX120903350000 Does s/he care how s/he is perceived by the rest of the group? 4 N/A
PX120903_Chat_Spontaneously PX120903020000 Does s/he come up to you spontaneously for a chat? 4 N/A
PX120903_Conversation_Turn_Taking PX120903230000 Is s/he good at turn-taking in conversation? 4 N/A
PX120903_Count_To_Fifty PX120903260000 Can s/he count to 50 without leaving out any numbers? 4 N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_ADHD PX120903390200 Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Hyperactivity/Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD 4 N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_Autism_Spectrum PX120903390400 Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Autism Spectrum Condition, including Asperger's Syndrome 4 N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_Language_Delay PX120903390100 Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Language delay 4 N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_Other PX120903390600 Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Other (please specify) 4 N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_Physical_Disability PX120903390500 Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: A physical disability 4 N/A
PX120903_Diagnosed_Visual_Hearing_Difficulties PX120903390300 Has s/he ever been diagnosed with any of the following?: Hearing or visual difficulties 4 N/A
PX120903_Difficulty_With_Polite_Behavior PX120903180000 Does s/he have difficulty understanding the rules for polite behavior? 4 N/A
PX120903_Does_Not_Explain_Topic PX120903320000 Does s/he sometimes lose the listener because of not explaining what s/he is talking about? 4 N/A
PX120903_Dominating_Interest PX120903140000 Does s/he have an interest which takes up so much time that s/he does little else? 4 N/A
PX120903_Easy_Interact_Other_Children PX120903100000 Does s/he find it easy to interact with other children? 4 N/A
PX120903_Engage_In_Role_Play PX120903240000 Does s/he play imaginatively with other children, and engage in role-play? 4 N/A
PX120903_Enjoy_Joking_Around PX120903170000 Does s/he enjoy joking around? 4 N/A
PX120903_Enjoy_Repetition PX120903090000 Does s/he like to do things over and over again, in the same way all the time? 4 N/A
PX120903_Enjoy_Sports PX120903040000 Does s/he enjoy sports? 4 N/A
PX120903_Friends_Or_Acquaintances PX120903150000 Does s/he have friends, rather than just acquaintances? 4 N/A
PX120903_Get_Dressed PX120903220000 Can s/he dress him/herself? 4 N/A
PX120903_Imagination_Or_Facts PX120903310000 Does s/he prefer imaginative activities such as play-acting or story-telling, rather than numbers or lists of facts? 4 N/A
PX120903_Important_To_Fit_In PX120903050000 Is it important to him/her to fit in with the peer group? 4 N/A
PX120903_Join_Games PX120903010000 Does s/he join in playing games with other children easily? 4 N/A
PX120903_Keep_Conversation_Going PX120903110000 Can s/he keep a two-way conversation going? 4 N/A
PX120903_Make_Eye_Contact PX120903270000 Does s/he make normal eye-contact? 4 N/A
PX120903_Notice_Details PX120903060000 Does s/he appear to notice unusual details that others miss? 4 N/A
PX120903_One_Sided_Social_Behavior PX120903290000 Is his/her social behavior very one-sided and always on his/her own terms? 4 N/A
PX120903_People_Are_Important PX120903210000 Are people important to him/her? 4 N/A
PX120903_Pretending_At_Age_Three PX120903080000 When s/he was 3 years old, did s/he spend a lot of time pretending (e.g., play-acting being a superhero, or holding teddy's tea parties)? 4 N/A
PX120903_Reads_At_Age_Level PX120903120000 Can s/he read appropriately for his/her age? 4 N/A
PX120903_Redirects_Conversation PX120903360000 Does s/he often turn conversations to his/her favorite subject rather than following what the other person wants to talk about? 4 N/A
PX120903_Repetitive_Movements PX120903280000 Does s/he have any unusual and repetitive movements? 4 N/A
PX120903_Ride_Bicycle PX120903330000 Can s/he ride a bicycle (even if with stabilizers)? 4 N/A
PX120903_Same_Interests_As_Peers PX120903130000 Does s/he mostly have the same interests as his/her peers? 4 N/A
PX120903_Self_Imposed_Routines PX120903340000 Does s/he try to impose routines on himself/herself, or on others, in such a way that it causes problems? 4 N/A
PX120903_Share_Things PX120903160000 Does s/he often bring you things s/he is interested in to show you? 4 N/A
PX120903_Socially_Inappropriate_Behavior PX120903250000 Does s/he often do or say things that are tactless or socially inappropriate? 4 N/A
PX120903_Speaking_By_Two PX120903030000 Was s/he speaking by 2 years old? 4 N/A
PX120903_Take_Things_Literally PX120903070000 Does s/he tend to take things literally? 4 N/A
PX120903_Teacher_Concerns PX120903380000 Have teachers/health visitors ever expressed any concerns about his/her development? 4 N/A
PX120903_Teacher_Concerns_Specify PX120903380100 Have teachers/health visitors ever expressed any concerns about his/her development? If yes, please specify 4 N/A
PX120903_Unusual_Memory_For_Details PX120903190000 Does s/he appear to have an unusual memory for details? 4 N/A
PX120903_Unusual_Phrases PX120903370000 Does s/he have odd or unusual phrases? 4 N/A
PX120903_Unusual_Voice PX120903200000 Is his/her voice unusual (e.g., overly adult, flat, or very monotonous)? 4 N/A
PX120903_You_Or_I PX120903300000 Does s/he sometimes say "you" or "s/he" when s/he means "I"? 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Release Date:

May 12, 2010

Definition

A questionnaire to assess autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a group of developmental problems that includes autism, Asperger’s syndrome, Rett syndrome, and the category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified. ASD is characterized by a lack of social interaction, difficulties in verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior (APA, 2000).

Purpose

This measure is used to screen an individual for the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it is estimated that between 1 in 80 and 1 in 240 children, with an average of 1 in 110 children, in the United States have an ASD (CDC, 2009). Autism displays a familial pattern because first-order relatives of those with ASD are at greater risk for autism and other developmental problems than the general population (APA, 2000).

Keywords

Psychiatric, Asperger’s syndrome, social impairment, repetitive behavior, Rett syndrome, communication disability