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Protocol - Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT)

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Description:

The Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT) is a multidimensional self-administered pain assessment tool. The APPT is used with children and adolescents to evaluate pain intensity, location, and quality (including sensory, temporal, affective, and evaluative). The APPT can be used with individuals experiencing pain for various reasons, such as sickle cell disease (SCD), postoperative pain, allergy testing, orthopedic, traumatic injury, and cancer. The APPT was modeled after the McGill Pain Questionnaire and is available in English and Spanish.

Protocol:

Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT)

Scoring:

The Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT) provides five subscale scores:

  1. Number of pain sites as a measure of pain location from marks on a body outline.
  1. Pain intensity measured by the Word Graphic Rating Scale (WGRS) and anchored by the words no pain, little, medium, large, and worst possible pain.
  1. Number of pain quality descriptors, which yields percent scores for the sensory, affective, and evaluative subscales.
  1. Number of temporal descriptors, which yields a percent temporal subscale.
  1. Percent of total pain quality and temporal descriptors as a total subscale.

The introduction of the Jacob et al. 2014 publication (see the Source section) contains details and source information regarding the above subscales.

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent

Participants:

Individuals ages 8 to 17 years old.

Specific Instructions:

None

Selection Rationale

The Sickle Cell Disease Neurology, Quality of Life, and Health Services Working Group selected the Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT) because it provides a comprehensive evaluation of pain, is well validated, widely used, and has minimal participant burden.

Additionally, the APPT was modeled after the McGill Pain Questionnaire (see Pain (Type and Intensity)-Adults). By using both of these tools, investigators can collect comparable pain data in pediatric and adult populations.

Language

English, Spanish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool Assessment Score 4924395 CDE Browser
Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Jacob, E., Mack, A. K., Savedra, M., Van Cleve, L., & Wilkie, D. J. (2014). Adolescent pediatric pain tool for multidimensional measurement of pain in children and adolescents. Pain Management Nursing 15(3), 694-706.

General References

Fernandes, A., De Campos, C., Batalha, L., Perdigão, A., & Jacob, E. (2014). Pain assessment using the Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool: A systematic review. Pain Research and Management, 19(4), 212-218.

Franck, L., Treadwell, M., Jacob, E., & Vichinsky, E. (2002). Assessment of Sickle Cell Pain in Children and Young Adults Using the Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool. Journal of Pain Symptom Management, 23, 114-120.

Jacob, E., Miaskowski, C., Savedra, M., Beyer, J., Treadwell, M., & Styles, L. (2003). Changes in intensity, location, and quality of vaso-occlusive pain in children with sickle cell disease. Pain, 102, 187-193.

Jacob, E., Stinson, J., Duran, J., Gupta, A., Gerla, M., Lewis, M. A., & Zeltzer L. (2012). Usability testing of a smartphone for accessing a web-based e-diary for self-monitoring of pain and symptoms in sickle cell disease. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 34, 326-335.

Savedra, M. C., Tesler, M. D., Holzemer, W. L., & Ward, J. A. (1992). Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool (APPT): User’s manual. San Francisco, CA: University of California, School of Nursing.

Savedra, M. C., Tesler, M. D., Holzemer, W. L., & Brokaw, P. (1995). A strategy to assess the temporal dimension of pain in children and adolescents. Nursing Research, 44(5), 272-276.

Savedra, M. C., Holzemer, W. L., Tesler, M. D., & Wilkie, D. J. (1993). Assessment of postoperation pain in children and adolescents using the adolescent pediatric pain tool. Nursing Research, 42(1), 5-9.

Savedra, M. C., Tesler, M. D., Holzemer, W. L., Wilkie, D. J., & Ward, J. A. (1989). Pain location: Validity and reliability of body outline markings by hospitalized children and adolescents. Research in Nursing & Health, 12(5), 307-314.

Tesler, M. D., Savedra, M. C., Holzemer, W. L., Wilkie, D. J., Ward, J. A., & Paul, S. M. (1991). The word-graphic rating scale as a measure of children’s and adolescents’ pain intensity. Research in Nursing & Health, 14(5), 361-371.

Wilkie, D. J., Holzemer, W. L., Tesler, M. D., Ward, J. A., Paul, S. M., & Savedra, M. C. (1990). Measuring pain quality: Validity and reliability of children’s and adolescents’ pain language. Pain, 41(2), 151-159.

Protocol ID:

190902

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX190902_PainType_Intensity_Code PX190902010000 Code 4 N/A
PX190902_PainType_Intensity_Date PX190902020000 Date 4 N/A
PX190902_PainType_Intensity_Describe_Pain PX190902050100 Point to or circle as many of these words that describe your pain 4 N/A
PX190902_PainType_Intensity_Describe_PainOther1 PX190902050200 Point to or circle as many of these words that describe your pain: If you like, you may add other words 4 N/A
PX190902_PainType_Intensity_Describe_PainOther2 PX190902050300 Point to or circle as many of these words that describe your pain: If you like, you may add other words 4 N/A
PX190902_PainType_Intensity_Describe_PainOther3 PX190902050400 Point to or circle as many of these words that describe your pain: If you like, you may add other words 4 N/A
PX190902_PainType_Intensity_Mark_Pain_Amount PX190902040000 Place a straight, up and down mark on this line to show how much pain you have. 4 N/A
PX190902_PainType_Intensity_Mark_Pain_Areas PX190902030000 Color in the areas on these drawings to show where you have pain. Make the marks as big or small as the place where the pain is. 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Pain (Type and Intensity)

Release Date:

July 30, 2015

Definition

This is a measure to assess pain and related symptoms.

Purpose

To provide a comprehensive measure of pain symptoms and conditions.

Keywords

Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool, APPT, Adolescent, Child, Pain, Ache, Muscle soreness, Muscle stiffness, Pain intensity, Pain measurement, Pain assessment, Pain symptoms, Postoperative, Sickle cell disease, SCD, Allergy testing, Orthopedic, Traumatic injury, proprietary