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Protocol - Child-Reported Parental Education Attainment

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Description:

This protocol includes two questions from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (Add Health) that ask the respondent to report on the highest level of education achieved by his or her residential parents (i.e., while growing up). The question may be administered via interview or through self-report questionnaire.

Protocol:

This question is about the woman who functions as a mother in the respondent’s household; she could be the biological mother, stepmother, foster mother, or adoptive mother or, perhaps, a grandmother or aunt. If there is no such woman, the question is skipped.

1. How far in school did she go?

[ ] 1 eighth grade or less

[ ] 2 more than eighth grade, but did not graduate from high school

[ ] 3 went to a business, trade, or vocational school instead of high school

[ ] 4 high school graduate

[ ] 5 completed a GED

[ ] 6 went to a business, trade, or vocational school after high school

[ ] 7 went to college, but did not graduate

[ ] 8 graduated from a college or university

[ ] 9 professional training beyond a four-year college or university

[ ] 10 she never went to school

[ ] 11 she went to school, but R doesn’t know what level

[ ] 12 R doesn’t know if she went to school

[ ] 96 refused

[ ] 97 legitimate skip

[ ] 98 don’t know

This question is about the man who functions as a father in the respondent’s household. If there is no such man, the question is skipped.

1. How far in school did he go?

[ ] 1 eighth grade or less

[ ] 2 more than eighth grade, but did not graduate from high school

[ ] 3 went to a business, trade, or vocational school instead of high school

[ ] 4 high school graduate

[ ] 5 completed a GED

[ ] 6 went to a business, trade, or vocational school after high school

[ ] 7 went to college, but did not graduate

[ ] 8 graduated from a college or university

[ ] 9 professional training beyond a four-year college or university

[ ] 10 he never went to school

[ ] 11 he went to school, but R doesn’t know what level

[ ] 12 R doesn’t know if he went to school

[ ] 96 refused

[ ] 97 legitimate skip

[ ] 98 don’t know

R = respondent

Protocol Name from Source:

National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (Add Health), 1995

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

No specific training is needed if data are collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The interviewer must be trained to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer must be trained and found to be competent (i.e., tested by an expert) at the completion of personal interviews. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided.

Equipment Needs

These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and-pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. The interviewer will require a laptop computer or handheld computer to administer or to allow the respondent to self-administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent

Participants:

Adolescents, aged 11-16 years old

Specific Instructions:

This protocol may be administered by interview or through self-report questionnaire. The question is asked separately for reports of father education and for reports of mother education. Additionally, the measure can be asked for residential parents, as well as nonresidential biological parents (where applicable). Residential parents may include biological, step-, adoptive, or foster mothers and fathers. If the respondent indicates that he or she lived with a nonbiological parent during childhood, the question can be repeated for the relevant nonresidential biological parent(s). This measure is not recommended for use in respondents who grew up in unusual situations (e.g., raised primarily by other adult relatives or in group homes). If direct assessment of parental education is possible (i.e., the parents can be asked directly), the educational attainment protocol in the Demographics Working Group (WG) may be used instead. The Social Environments WG recommends that this protocol can be used on adolescents and adults aged older than 16 years old if the lead-in is modified to refer to the resident mother or father when the respondent was aged 16 years old.

Selection Rationale

The National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (AddHealth) protocol was selected because it was previously used in one of the earliest and largest twin studies of gene X environment interaction for adolescent cognitive ability (Rowe et al., 1999) and shows high levels of agreement (r = 0.81) across independent ratings from siblings in the same family.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Parent Education Level Assessment Description Text 3139305 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) Child report parent educ attain proto 63013-7 LOINC
Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #2 (ERP 2) reviewed the measures in the Demographics, Environmental Exposures, and Social Environments domains.

Guidance from ERP 2 includes:

• Revised descriptions of the measure

Back-compatible: no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)

Source

This question is from National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (Add Health), a project directed by Kathleen Mullan Harris and designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and funded by grant P01-HD31921 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, with cooperative funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations. Special acknowledgment is due Ronald R. Rindfuss and Barbara Entwisle for assistance in the original design. Information on how to obtain the Add Health data files is available on the Add Health website (http://www.cpc.unc.edu/addhealth).

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (1998). National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Chapel Hill, NC: Author. Wave I Adolescent In-Home Interview. Question 1 from Sections 14 and 15.

General References

Miech, R. A., & Hauser, R. M. (2001). Socioeconomic status (SES) and health at midlife: A comparison of educational attainment with occupation-based indicators. Annals of Epidemiology, 11, 75-84.

Rowe, D. C., Jacobson, K. C., & Van den Oord, E. J. C. G. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on vocabulary IQ: Parental education as moderator. Child Development, 70, 1151-1162.

Protocol ID:

210201

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX210201_Father_Education PX210201020000 This question is about the man who functions as a father in the respondent's household. If there is no such man, the section is skipped. How far in school did he go? 4 Variable Mapping
PX210201_Mother_Education PX210201010000 This question is about the woman who functions as a mother in the respondent's household; she could be the biological mother, step mother, foster mother, or adoptive mother, or perhaps a grandmother or aunt. If there is no such woman, the section is skipped. How far in school did she go? 4 Variable Mapping
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Child-Reported Parental Education Attainment

Release Date:

May 31, 2016

Definition

This measure is a questionnaire to identify a parent’s highest level of education obtained.

Purpose

Parental education is correlated with income and job attainment and can be used as a proxy for assessing socioeconomic status in the family of origin. Many studies show that socioeconomic status at different points in life is associated with diverse aspects of health and cognition.

Keywords

Social environments, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NICHD, education, deprivation, income, education level, National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health, Add Health