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Protocol - School Social Environment

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Description:

The protocol includes 39 self-administered questions developed by Zullig et al. (2010). The items are scored with a five-point Likert scale, from strongly disagree to strongly agree, and include eight subscales: teacher relationships, school connectedness, academic support, order and discipline, school physical environment, school social environment, perceived exclusion/privilege, and academic satisfaction. The respondent reviews a list of items and chooses the answer that best relates to himself or herself.

Protocol:

Teacher Relationships

1. Teachers understand my problems

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

2. Teachers and staff seem to take a real interest in my future

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

3. Teachers are available when I need to talk with them

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

4. It is easy to talk with teachers

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

5. Students get along well with teachers

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

6. At my school, there is a teacher or some other adult who notices when I’m not there

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

7. Teachers at my school help us children with our problems

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

8. My teachers care about me

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

9. My teacher makes me feel good about myself

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

School Connectedness

10. My schoolwork is exciting

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

11. Students can make suggestions on courses that are offered

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

12. Students are publicly recognized for their outstanding performances in speech, drama, art, music, etc.

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

13. If this school had an extra period during the day, I would take an additional academic class

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

14. This school makes students enthusiastic about learning

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

15. Students are frequently rewarded or praised by faculty and staff for following school rules

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Academic Support

16. I usually understand my homework assignments

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

17. Teachers make it clear what work needs to be done to get the grade I want

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

18. I believe that teachers expect all students to learn

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

19. I feel that I can do well in this school

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

20. My teachers believe that I can do well in my school work

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

21. I try hard to succeed in my classes

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Order and Discipline

22. Classroom rules are applied equally

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

23. Problems in this school are solved by students and staff

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

24. Students get in trouble if they do not follow school rules

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

25. The rules of the school are fair

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

26. School rules are enforced consistently and fairly

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

27. My teachers make it clear to me when I have misbehaved in class

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

28. Discipline is fair

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

School Physical Environment

29. The school grounds are kept clean

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

30. My school is neat and clean

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

31. My school buildings are generally pleasant and well maintained

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

32. My school is usually clean and tidy

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

School Social Environment

33. I am happy with kinds of students who go to my school

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

34. I am happy, in general, with the other students who go to my school

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Perceived Exclusion/Privilege

35. At my school, the same person always gets to help the teacher

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

36. At my school, the same kids get chosen every time to take part in after-school or special activities

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

37. The same kids always get to use things, like a computer, a ball or a piano, when we play

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Academic Satisfaction

38. I am happy about the number of tests I have

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

39. I am happy about the amount of homework I have

[ ] Strongly disagree

[ ] Disagree

[ ] Neither agree nor disagree

[ ] Agree

[ ] Strongly agree

Protocol Name from Source:

NA

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

No specific training is needed if data are collected through a self-administered questionnaire

Equipment Needs

These questions can be administered in a computerized or noncomputerized format (i.e., paper-and pencil instrument). Computer software is necessary to develop computer-assisted instruments. The interviewer will require a laptop computer or handheld computer to administer or to allow the respondent to self-administer a computer-assisted questionnaire.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Child, Adolescent

Participants:

Adolescents, aged 12-18 years old

Specific Instructions:

None

Selection Rationale

The Zullig et al. (2010) scale was selected from among many available because it is a validated and reliable protocol that measures several traditional subcomponents of the more-comprehensive school social environment and that is easy and inexpensive to administer.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) School Social Environment Assessment Description Text 3139351 CDE Browser
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) School social environ proto 63030-1 LOINC
Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #2 (ERP 2) reviewed the measures in the Demographics, Environmental Exposures, and Social Environments domains.

Guidance from ERP 2 includes:

• Revised descriptions of the measure

Back-compatible: no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)

Source

Zullig, K. J., Collins, R., Ghani, N., Hunter, A. A., Patton, J.M., Huebner, E. S., Zhang, J. (2015). Preliminary development of a revised version of the School Climate Measure. Psychological Assessment, 27(3): 1072-1081.

Zullig, K. J., Collins, R., Ghani, N., Patton, J. M., Huebner, E. S., & Ajamie, J. (2014). Psychometric support of the School Climate Measure in a large, diverse sample of adolescents: A replication and extension. Journal of School Health, 84(2), 82-90.

Zullig, K. J., Huebner, E. S., & Patton, J. M. (2011). Relationships among school climate domains and school satisfaction: further validation of the School Climate Measure. Psychology in the Schools, 48(2), 133-145.

Zullig, K., Koopman, T., Patton, J., & Ubbes, V. (2010). School climate: Historical review, instrument development, and school assessment. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(2), 139-152.

General References

Hicks, B. M., South, S. C., DiRago, A. C., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2009). Environmental adversity and increasing genetic risk for externalizing disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(6), 640-648.

Jacobson, K. C., & Rowe, D. C. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on the relationships between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood: Sex differences. Developmental Psychology, 35, 926-939.

McNeely, C., & Falci, C. (2004). School connectedness and the transition into and out of health-risk behavior among adolescents: A comparison of social belonging and teacher support. Journal of School Health, 74, 284-292.

Protocol ID:

211001

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX211001_Classroom_Rules_Applied_Equally PX211001220000 Classroom rules are applied equally 4 N/A
PX211001_Clear_Expectations_For_Grades PX211001170000 Teachers make it clear what work needs to be done to get the grade I want 4 N/A
PX211001_Discipline_Is_Fair PX211001280000 Discipline is fair 4 N/A
PX211001_Do_Well_In_School PX211001190000 I feel that I can do well in this school 4 N/A
PX211001_Easy_To_Talk_With_Teachers PX211001040000 It is easy to talk with teachers 4 N/A
PX211001_Exciting_Schoolwork PX211001100000 My schoolwork is exciting 4 N/A
PX211001_Happy_About_Amount_Of_Homework PX211001390000 I am happy about the amount of homework I have 4 N/A
PX211001_Happy_About_Number_Tests PX211001380000 I am happy about the number of tests I have 4 N/A
PX211001_Happy_With_Kinds_Of_Schoolmates PX211001330000 I am happy with kinds of students who go to my school 4 N/A
PX211001_Happy_With_Other_Students PX211001340000 I am happy, in general, with the other students who go to my school 4 N/A
PX211001_Problems_Solved_By_Staff_Students PX211001230000 Problems in this school are solved by students and staff 4 N/A
PX211001_Same_Kids_Chosen_Special_Activities PX211001360000 At my school, the same kids get chosen every time to take part in after-school or special activities 4 N/A
PX211001_Same_Kids_Use_Resources PX211001370000 The same kids always get to use things, like a computer, a ball or a piano, when we play 4 N/A
PX211001_Same_Person_Helps_Teacher PX211001350000 At my school, the same person always gets to help the teacher 4 N/A
PX211001_Schools_Makes_Students_Enthusiastic PX211001140000 This school makes students enthusiastic about learning 4 N/A
PX211001_School_Buildings_Pleasant_Maintained PX211001310000 My school buildings are generally pleasant and well maintained 4 N/A
PX211001_School_Grounds_Kept_Clean PX211001290000 The school grounds are kept clean 4 N/A
PX211001_School_Neat_Clean PX211001300000 My school is neat and clean 4 N/A
PX211001_School_Rules_Are_Fair PX211001250000 The rules of the school are fair 4 N/A
PX211001_School_Rules_Enforced_Fairly_Consistently PX211001260000 School rules are enforced consistently and fairly 4 N/A
PX211001_School_Usually_Clean_Tidy PX211001320000 My school is usually clean and tidy 4 N/A
PX211001_Students_Get_Along_With_Teachers PX211001050000 Students get along well with teachers 4 N/A
PX211001_Students_Influence_Offered_Courses PX211001110000 Students can make suggestions on courses that are offered 4 N/A
PX211001_Students_Punished_Not_Following_Rules PX211001240000 Students get in trouble if they do not follow school rules 4 N/A
PX211001_Students_Recognized_For_Arts PX211001120000 Students are publicly recognized for their outstanding performances in speech, drama, art, music, etc. 4 N/A
PX211001_Students_Recognized_For_Following_Rules PX211001150000 Students are frequently rewarded or praised by faculty and staff for following school rules 4 N/A
PX211001_Take_Additional_Classes PX211001130000 If this school had an extra period during the day, I would take an additional academic class 4 N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Available_To_Talk PX211001030000 Teachers are available when I need to talk with them 4 N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Believe_In_Students_Abilities PX211001200000 My teachers believe that I can do well in my school work 4 N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Call_Out_Class_Misbehavior PX211001270000 My teachers make it clear to me when I have misbehaved in class 4 N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Care PX211001080000 My teachers care about me 4 N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Expect_Students_To_Learn PX211001180000 I believe that teachers expect all students to learn 4 N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Feel_Good PX211001090000 My teacher makes me feel good about myself 4 N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Help_With_Problems PX211001070000 Teachers at my school help us children with our problems 4 N/A
PX211001_Teachers_Notice_Truancy PX211001060000 At my school, there is a teacher or some other adult who notices when I'm not there 4 N/A
PX211001_Teacher_Interested_In_Future PX211001020000 Teachers and staff seem to take a real interest in my future 4 N/A
PX211001_Teacher_Understands_Problems PX211001010000 Teachers understand my problems 4 N/A
PX211001_Try_To_Succeed PX211001210000 I try hard to succeed in my classes 4 N/A
PX211001_Understand_Homework PX211001160000 I usually understand my homework assignments 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

School Social Environment

Release Date:

May 31, 2016

Definition

This measure is a questionnaire to assess an adolescent respondent’s perceptions of the quality and character of his or her school social environment, which in educational literature most frequently is referenced as school climate.

Purpose

This measure can be used to evaluate the quality of a school’s social environment by collecting information on an adolescent’s self-perception of his or her school life experiences. School social environments that adversely affect the mental health of young people may externalize disorders. Hicks et al. (2009) found consistent patterns of gene-environment interplay between externalizing disorders (antisocial behavior and substance use) and several environmental risk factors, including academic achievement and engagement, antisocial and prosocial peer affiliations, mother-child and father-child relationship problems, and stressful life events. Except for parent relationship problems, these measured risk factors may be influenced markedly by exposure to unique school social environments (often referenced as school climate) every school day for up to 13 formative years, during which children and adolescents may be particularly susceptible.

Keywords

Social environments, schools, teacher relationships, school connectedness, academic support, order and discipline, school physical environment, school social environment, perceived exclusion, privilege, academic satisfaction