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Protocol - Substance Abuse and Dependence - Past Year - Drugs

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Description:

In a face-to-face interview, the respondent is asked several questions about substance abuse and dependence during the past 12 months. These responses correspond with criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). The questions encompass marijuana and several prescription and other illicit drug categories.

Protocol:

CHECK ITEM 3.11

For every drug category marked in 1a, mark the corresponding category below and ask 2a-g for each marked drug category.

2a. How old were you when you FIRST used (Name of drug category)?

b. Did you use (Name of drug category) in the last 12 months only, before the last 12 months only, or during both time periods?

c. During the last 12 months, about how often did you use (Name of drug category)?

SHOW FLASHCARD

d. When was the most recent time you used (Name of drug category)?

e. Think about the time when you were using (Name of drug category) the MOST. At that time about how often did you use (it/them)?

(SHOW FLASHCARD 42)

f. About how old were you when you FIRST BEGAN using (Name of drug category) that frequently?

g. About how long did that period last when you were using (Name of drug category) that frequently? (If less than 1 week enter 1 week)

[ ] 1 Sedatives or Tranquilizers

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

[ ] 2 Painkillers

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

[ ] 3 Marijuana

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

[ ] 4 Cocaine or Crack

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

[ ] 5 Stimulants

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

[ ] 6 Club drugs

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

[ ] 7 Hallucinogens

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

[ ] 8 Inhalants/Solvents

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

[ ] 9 Heroin

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

10 OTHER

______ Age

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Prior to last 12 months only - Go to next drug category

[ ] 3 Both time periods

|__|__|

___ Day(s) ago OR

___ Week(s) ago OR

___ Month(s) ago OR

___ Year(s) ago

|__|__|

______ Age

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

CHECK ITEM 3.12

What is the time period marked in 2b for marijuana?

When did respondent use marijuana?

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Before last 12 months only - SKIP to 4

[ ] 3 Both time periods

[ ] 4 Never - SKIP to Check Item 3.13

3. Now I would like to know a little more about your use of marijuana.

On the days that you used marijuana in the last 12 months, about how many joints did you usually smoke in a single day?

______ Number

4. (Now I would like to know a little more about your use of marijuana.)

At the time you were using marijuana the MOST, about how many joints did you usually smoke in a single day?

______ Number

CHECK ITEM 3.13

What is the time period marked in 2b for cocaine or crack?

When did respondent use cocaine or crack?

[ ] 1 Last 12 months only

[ ] 2 Before last 12 months only - SKIP to 6

[ ] 3 Both time periods

[ ] 4 Never - SKIP to Check Item 3.13A

5. Now I would like to know a little more about your use of cocaine or crack.

On the days that you used cocaine or crack in the last 12 months, about how many grams, lines or rocks did you usually use in a single day?

_____ Gram(s)

OR

_____ Line(s)

OR

_____ Rock(s)

6. (Now I would like to know a little more about your use of cocaine or crack.)

At the time you were using cocaine or crack the MOST, about how many grams, lines or rocks did you usually use in a single day?

_____ Gram(s)

OR

_____ Line(s)

OR

_____ Rock(s)

7a. In which of the following ways have you used cocaine or crack?

Read each response category.

Mark (X) all that apply,

[ ] 1 IV, through the veins?

[ ] 2 Injection under the skin?

[ ] 3 Smoking, freebasing?

[ ] 4 Snorting, sniffing, breathing?

[ ] 5 By mouth, drinking?

[ ] 6 Other method?

CHECK ITEM 3.13A

Is respondent only a marijuana user?

[ ] 1 Yes - END QUESTIONS

[ ] 2 No

CHECK ITEM 3.13B

Did respondent use stimulants in the last 12 months?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No - SKIP to Check Item 3.13C

7b. In the last 12 months, did you use Add’-erall, Concerta, Sy’-lert, Pro-vig’-il, Ritalin, Dexedrine, or any other prescription stimulants ON YOUR OWN?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

c. In the last 12 months, did you use a stimulant other than a prescription stimulant?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

CHECK ITEM 3.13C

Did respondent use stimulants before 12 months ago?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No - SKIP to 8

7d. Did you use Add’-erall, Concerta, Sy’-lert, Pro-vig’-il, Ritalin, Dexedrine, or any other prescription stimulants ON YOUR OWN before 12 months ago?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

e. Did you use a stimulant other than a prescription stimulant before 12 months ago?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

8. Have you EVER taken ANY medicines or drugs that we just talked about ON YOUR OWN by injection with a needle?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No - END QUESTIONS

9. Did you take ANY medicines or drugs that we just talked about ON YOUR OWN by injection with a needle in the last 12 months?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No - SKIP to 12

10. About how often in the last 12 months, did you inject a medicine or drug with a needle?

[ ] 1 Every day

[ ] 2 Nearly every day

[ ] 3 3 to 4 times a week

[ ] 4 1 to 2 times a week

[ ] 5 2 to 3 times a month

[ ] 6 Once a month

[ ] 7 7 to 11 times in the last year

[ ] 8 3 to 6 times in the last year

[ ] 9 2 times in the last year

[ ] 10 Once in the last year

11. Did you take ANY medicines or drugs that we just talked about ON YOUR OWN by injection with a needle BEFORE 12 months ago?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No - SKIP to 13

(SHOW FLASHCARD)

12. Think about a time when you were taking a medicine or drug by injection with a needle the MOST. At that time about how often did you inject a medicine or drug?

[ ] 1 Every day

[ ] 2 Nearly every day

[ ] 3 3 to 4 times a week

[ ] 4 1 to 2 times a week

[ ] 5 2 to 3 times a month

[ ] 6 Once a month

[ ] 7 7 to 11 times in the last year

[ ] 8 3 to 6 times in the last year

[ ] 9 2 times in the last year

[ ] 10 Once in the last year

13. About how long did that period last when you were taking a medicine or drug by injection the MOST?

(If less than 1 week enter 1 week)

____ Week(s)

OR

____ Month(s)

OR

____ Year(s)

14. About how old were you when you first injected any medicine or drug?

______ Age

CHECK ITEM 3.13D

Did respondent inject any medicines or drugs in the last 12 months?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No - SKIP to 16

15. I would like to ask you a few questions about needle sharing. By needle sharing, I mean using someone else’s needles, syringes, or other injection equipment, like filters, spoons, cookers or washers, or letting someone else use yours.

In the last 12 months did you take ANY medicines or drugs using a needle or other injection equipment that you knew or suspected had been used by someone else, or did you let someone else use yours?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

CHECK ITEM 3.13E

Did respondent inject any medicine or drug before 12 months ago?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No - SKIP to 17

16. (I would like to ask you a few questions about needle sharing. By needle sharing, I mean using someone else’s needles, syringes, or other injection equipment, like filters, spoons, cookers or washers, or letting someone else use yours.

BEFORE 12 months ago did you take ANY medicines or drugs using a needle or other injection equipment that you knew or suspected had been used by someone else, or did you let someone else use yours? Did this happen BEFORE 12 months ago?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No

CHECK ITEM 3.14

Is 15 or 16 marked "Yes"?

[ ] 1 Yes

[ ] 2 No - END QUESTIONS

17. About how many people shared a needle or other injection equipment the last time you shared?

[ ] 1 1

[ ] 2 2

[ ] 3 3

[ ] 4 4

[ ] 5 5 or more

Protocol Name from Source:

National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

The interviewer must be trained and found competent to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided. It is preferable to either read the questionnaire aloud to the respondent or administer it in an audio-assisted computer interview (ACASI) format. The questions are sensitive in nature, and the interviewer should be trained to react appropriately to emotional responses. If a distressed respondent protocol is adopted, the interviewer should be trained to administer those procedures.

Equipment Needs

While the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5) instrument was developed for administration by computer, the PhenX WG acknowledges that these questions can be administered in a noncomputerized format. Hasin et al. (1997) and Grant et al. (1995) used the AUDADIS in paper-and-pencil format, while Grant et al. (2003) obtained data with the computerized format.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult

Participants:

Adults aged 18 years or older

Specific Instructions:

The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition Version (AUDADIS-5) Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Scoring Algorithms are provided for data interpretation. Please click here (TK team will insert hyperlink) to access the scoring algorithm document. The algorithms were constructed by Yoanna McDowell, M.A, under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth Sher (University of Missouri) in 2017 and posted here with their permission. They were verified by diagnostic variables available in the NESARC-III data set and published NESARC-III diagnostic and severity prevalence data. Users are solely responsible for the use and interpretation of the algorithms and results.

Due to the complexity of the algorithms and associated analysis, Expert Review Panel 3 recommends analysis be performed by a statistician who has experience using NESARC datasets,

The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition Version (AUDADIS-5) is a complex diagnostic instrument that likely requires expertise with SAS and the NESARC dataset in order to successfully implement scoring algorithms.

Questions concerning past 12-month substance use experiences are found in Section 3B of the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-Fifth Edition Version (AUDADIS-5). These questions are asked if a respondent had affirmatively answered at least one question in the Substances - Lifetime Use measure from the Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances domain, such that lifetime never users (i.e., never used any drugs or medicines without a doctor’s prescription) skip Section 3B entirely.

The AUDADIS-5 questions and check items have not been renumbered. The Protocol text starts with a series of questions under "2b" to gather information on drugs used in the past 12-month period. PhenX Toolkit users should then refer to the Substances - Lifetime Abuse and Dependence measure to collect additional data. The protocol text starts at Section 3C - Medicine Experiences. Past 12-month users are asked the series of abuse and dependence questions to gather information on experiences related to the specific drug(s) that they reported using. Note that not all questions are administered to all respondents because of skip patterns in AUDADIS-5. For instance, past 12-month users who only report using marijuana are only asked the abuse and dependence questions related to marijuana. For participants reporting past 12-month use of more than one drug, the protocol questions should be repeated for each drug reported.

The Substance Abuse and Addiction Working Group acknowledges that the following questions may gather sensitive information relating to the use of substances or illegal conduct. If the information is released, it might be damaging to an individual’s employability, lead to social stigmatization, or lead to other consequences.

Most researchers assure confidentiality as part of their informed consent process, as required by their institutional review boards. When assessing minors with these questions, it may be necessary to obtain informed consent from a parent of the adolescent. Further assurance of confidentiality may be obtained by applying to National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a Certificate of Confidentiality, which helps researchers protect the privacy of human research participants. The procedures for the Certificate of Confidentiality can be found at the Grants Policy website of the NIH (http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/policy/coc/index.htm).

Selection Rationale

The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) captures diagnostic information via the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5). Therefore, the user can link diagnostic data from the NESARC directly to treatment utilization also collected from the NESARC.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Substance Abuse Medicine Use Past Year Questionnaire Assessment Description Text 3466876 CDE Browser
Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP3) reviewed the measures in the Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances domain and in the Substance Abuse and Addiction Collection.

Guidance from the ERP includes:

  • Updated protocol (same source)

Partially back-compatible (updated/similar protocol which would require some changes to the data dictionary), variable mapping between current and previous protocols can be found here (link).

Source

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (N.d.). National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III). Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health. Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5), Section 3B - Medicine Use (Questions 2a-17).

General References

Grant, B. F., Goldstein, R. B., Smith, S. M., Jung, J., Zhang, H., Chou, S. P., Pickering, R. P., Ruan, W. J., Huang, B., Saha, T. D., Aivadyan, C., Greenstein, E., & Hasin, D. S. (2015). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5): Reliability of substance use and psychiatric disorder modules in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 148, 27-33.

Grant, B. F., Harford, T. C., Dawson, D. A., Chou, P. S., & Pickering, R. P. (1995). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS): Reliability of alcohol and drug modules in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 39(1), 37-44.

Hasin, D., Carpenter, K. M., McCloud, S., Smith, M., & Grant, B. F. (1997). The alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities interview schedule (AUDADIS): Reliability of alcohol and drug modules in a clinical sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 44(2-3), 133-141.

Protocol ID:

510405

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Substance Abuse and Dependence - Past Year

Release Date:

November 28, 2017

Definition

Interviewer-administered questions to determine whether the respondent has experienced symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence, nicotine dependence, or substance abuse and dependence in the past year (i.e., past 12 months).

Purpose

This measure uses the 12-month criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), to evaluate alcohol abuse and dependence, nicotine dependence, or substance abuse and dependence.

Keywords

Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, AUDADIS, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIAAA, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, DSM-5, National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, NESARC