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Protocol - Self-reported Craving - Specific - Tobacco

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Description:

The Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief) consists of 10 statements about the respondent’s feelings and thoughts about his or her desire to smoke cigarettes as he or she is completing the questionnaire (i.e., right now).

Protocol:

Indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements by placing a single checkmark (like this: [✔]) by a number ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The closer you place your checkmark to one end or the other indicates the strength of your disagreement or agreement. Please complete every item. We are interested in how you are thinking or feeling right now as you are filling out this questionnaire.

1. I have a desire for a cigarette right now.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

2. Nothing would be better than smoking a cigarette right now.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

3. If it were possible, I probably would smoke right now.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

4. I could control things better right now if I could smoke.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

5. All I want right now is a cigarette.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

6. I have an urge for a cigarette.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

7. A cigarette would taste good now.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

8. I would do almost anything for a cigarette now.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

9. Smoking would make me less depressed.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

10. I am going to smoke as soon as possible.

1 [ ] STRONGLY DISAGREE

2 [ ]

3 [ ]

4 [ ]

5 [ ]

6 [ ]

7 [ ] STRONGLY AGREE

Scoring Procedure and Interpretation

Several scoring schemes have been proposed, and in all of these, the items are averaged or summed to yield factor scores. The initial scoring scheme proposed by Cox et al. (2001) and later partially confirmed by Toll et al. (2006) had two factors:

  • Factor 1 included items 1, 3, 6, 7, and 10
  • Factor 2 included items 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9

The score for each factor is calculated by summing the item scores; the total score is calculated by summing all 10 items.

Toll et al. (2006) found that the most robust items from the Cox et al. (2001) analysis revealed the best fit in a confirmatory factor analysis, again with two factors: Factor 1 included items 1 and 6, and Factor 2 included items 4, 8, and 9. These items and factor titles are:

Factor 1 - Intention/Desire to Smoke

  • I have a desire for a cigarette right now.
  • I have an urge for a cigarette.

Factor 2 - Relief of Negative Affect & Urgent Desire to Smoke

  • I could control things better right now if I could smoke.
  • I would do almost anything for a cigarette right now.
  • Smoking would make me less depressed.

The scoring scheme reflects factors identified in the original publications. Factor structure may differ in individual studies.

Protocol Name from Source:

Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult, Senior

Participants:

Adults aged 18 years and older

Specific Instructions:

The Substance Abuse and Addiction Working Group acknowledges that the following questions may gather sensitive information relating to the use of substances and/or illegal conduct. If the information is released, it might be damaging to an individual’s employability, lead to social stigmatization, or lead to other consequences.

Most researchers assure confidentiality as part of their informed consent process, as required by their institutional review boards. Further assurance of confidentiality may be obtained by applying to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a Certificate of Confidentiality, which helps researchers protect the privacy of human research participants. The procedures for the Certificate of Confidentiality can be found at the Grants Policy website of NIH: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/policy/coc/index.htm.

Selection Rationale

The Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief) has produced consistent findings across many studies. The QSU-Brief takes less than 2 minutes to administer. The psychometric properties were acceptable and consistent across samples and settings.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Tobacco Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Craving(QSU-Brief) Assessment Score 3332481 CDE Browser
Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• No significant changes to measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Source

Questionnaire

Cox, L. S., Tiffany, S. T., & Christen, A. G. (2001). Evaluation of the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief) in laboratory and clinical settings. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 3(1), 7-16.

Tiffany, S. T., & Drobes, D. J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. British Journal of Addiction, 86(11), 1467-1476.

Questionnaire Instructions (adapted from the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire)

Sussner, B. D., Smelson, D. A., Rodrigues, S., Kline, A., Losonczy, M., & Ziedonis, D. (2006). The validity and reliability of a brief measure of cocaine craving. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 83(3), 233-237.

General References

Burton, S. M., & Tiffany, S. T. (1997). The effect of alcohol consumption on craving to smoke. Addiction, 92(1), 15-26.

Cepeda-Benito, A., & Tiffany, S. T. (1996). The use of a dual-task procedure for the assessment of cognitive effort associated with cigarette craving. Psychopharmacology, 127(2), 155-163.

Drobes, D. J., Meier, E. A., & Tiffany, S. T. (1994). Assessment of the effects of urges and negative affect on smokers’ coping skills. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32(1), 165-174.

Drobes, D. J., & Tiffany, S. T. (1997). Induction of smoking urges through imaginal and in vivo procedures: Physiological and self-report manifestations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(1), 15-25.

Elash, C. A., Tiffany, S. T., & Vrana, S. R. (1995). Manipulation of smoking urges and affect through a brief-imagery procedure: Self-report, psychophysiological, and startle probe responses. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 3(2), 156-162.

Maude-Griffin, P., & Tiffany, S. T. (1996). Production of smoking urges through imagery: The impact of affect and smoking abstinence. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4(2), 198-208.

Toll, B. A., Katulak, N. A., & McKee, S. A. (2006). Investigating the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief). Addictive Behaviors, 31(7), 1231-1239.

Protocol ID:

520306

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX520306_All_I_Want_Is_Cigarette PX520306050000 All I want right now is a cigarette. 4 N/A
PX520306_A_Cigarette_Would_Taste_Good PX520306070000 A cigarette would taste good now. 4 N/A
PX520306_Control_Things_Better_Smoke PX520306040000 I could control things better right now if I could smoke. 4 N/A
PX520306_Desire_For_A_Cigarette PX520306010000 I have a desire for a cigarette right now. 4 N/A
PX520306_Do_Almost_Anything_For_Cigarette PX520306080000 I would do almost anything for a cigarette now. 4 N/A
PX520306_Nothing_Better_Than_Smoking PX520306020000 Nothing would be better than smoking a cigarette right now. 4 N/A
PX520306_Probably_Would_Smoke_Now PX520306030000 If it were possible, I probably would smoke right now. 4 N/A
PX520306_Smoke_As_Soon_As_Possible PX520306100000 I am going to smoke as soon as possible. 4 N/A
PX520306_Smoking_Make_Me_Less_Depressed PX520306090000 Smoking would make me less depressed. 4 N/A
PX520306_Urge_For_A_Cigarette PX520306060000 I have an urge for a cigarette. 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Self-reported Craving

Release Date:

February 24, 2012

Definition

Instruments used separately to assess the severity of craving for tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drugs, via self-report.

Purpose

The purpose of this measure is to assess the severity of craving for tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drugs by asking the respondent questions about his or her desires, urges, or thoughts about such cravings. The Working Group recommends that investigators incorporate the question in the primary protocol as a core item to obtain general information on a variety of substances. The secondary protocols can then be used to obtain detailed information on a specific substance.

Keywords

Addiction, alcohol, Alcohol Urge Questionnaire, AUQ, Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges, QSU-Brief, cigarette, Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief, CCQ-Brief, Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, COGA, compulsion, desire, Marijuana Craving Questionnaire, MCQ, National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, NESARC, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIAAA, Obsessive-Compulsive Drug Use Scale, OCDUS Heroin Version, pot, Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism, SSAGA, substance abuse and addiction, SAA, urge, substance-specific intermediate phenotypes