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Protocol - Motives - Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances - Specific - Tobacco

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Description:

The Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (Brief WISDM) consists of 37 questions spanning 11 subscales about the respondent’s reasons for cigarette smoking. Each question is answered on a seven-point scale ranging from 1 for "Not true of me at all" to 7 for "Extremely true of me." The Brief WISDM was developed from the full 68-item WISDM.

Protocol:

Below are a series of statements about cigarette smoking. Please rate your level of agreement for each using the following scale. There are no right or wrong answers.

1. I often smoke without thinking about it

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

2. Cigarettes control me

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

3. I usually want to smoke right after I wake up

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

4. It’s hard to ignore an urge to smoke

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

5. The flavor of a cigarette is pleasing

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

6. I frequently smoke to keep my mind focused

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

7. I rely upon smoking to control my hunger and eating

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

8. My life is full of reminders to smoke

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

9. Smoking helps me feel better in seconds

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

10. I smoke without deciding to

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

11. Cigarettes keep me company, like a close friend

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

12. There are particular sights and smells that trigger strong urges to smoke

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

13. Smoking helps me stay focused

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

14. I frequently light cigarettes without thinking about it

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

15. Most of my daily cigarettes taste good

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

16. Sometimes I feel like cigarettes rule my life

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

17. I frequently crave cigarettes

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

18. Most of the people I spend time with are smokers

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

19. Weight control is a major reason that I smoke

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

20. Some of the cigarettes I smoke taste great

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

21. I’m really hooked on cigarettes

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

22. Sometimes I feel like cigarettes are my best friends

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

23. My urges to smoke keep getting stronger if I don’t smoke

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

24. Seeing someone smoke makes me really want a cigarette

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

25. I find myself reaching for cigarettes without thinking about it

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

26. I would feel alone without my cigarettes

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

27. A lot of my friends or family smoke

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

28. Other smokers would consider me a heavy smoker

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

29. When I haven’t been able to smoke for a few hours, the craving gets intolerable

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

30. Most of my friends and acquaintances smoke

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

31. I smoke within the first 30 minutes of awakening in the morning

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

32. Smoking helps me think better

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

33. Smoking really helps me feel better if I’ve been feeling down

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

34. Smoking keeps me from overeating

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

35. My smoking is out of control

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

36. I consider myself a heavy smoker

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

37. Even when I feel good, smoking helps me feel better

1 [ ] Not true of me at all

[ ] 2

[ ] 3

[ ] 4

[ ] 5

[ ] 6

7 [ ] Extremely true of me

Scoring Procedure and Interpretation

Brief WISDM subscale

Scoring procedure

Affiliative Attachment

Mean of items 11, 22, 26

Automaticity

Mean of items 1, 10, 14, 25

Loss of Control

Mean of items 2, 16, 21, 35

Cognitive Enhancement

Mean of items 6, 13, 32

Craving

Mean of items 4, 17, 23, 29

Cue Exposure/Associative Processes

Mean of items 8, 12, 24

Social/Environmental Goads

Mean of items 18, 27, 30

Taste

Mean of items 5, 15, 20

Tolerance

Mean of items 3, 28, 31, 36

Weight Control

Mean of items 7, 19, 34

Affective Enhancement

Mean of items 9, 33, 37

Total Score

Sum of means for the 11 subscales

The scoring scheme reflects factors identified in the original publications. Factor structure may differ in individual studies.

Protocol Name from Source:

The Expert Review Panel has not reviewed this measure yet.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult, Senior

Participants:

Adults aged 18 years and older

Specific Instructions:

These questions are only asked if a respondent had answered affirmatively one of the questions in the "Tobacco - Smoking Status" measure.

The Substance Abuse and Addiction Working Group acknowledges that the following questions may gather sensitive information relating to the use of substances and/or illegal conduct. If the information is released, it might be damaging to an individual’s employability, lead to social stigmatization, or lead to other consequences.

Most researchers assure confidentiality as part of their informed consent process, as required by their institutional review boards. Further assurance of confidentiality may be obtained by applying to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for a Certificate of Confidentiality, which helps researchers protect the privacy of human research participants. The procedures for the Certificate of Confidentiality can be found at the Grants Policy website of NIH: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/policy/coc/index.htm.

Selection Rationale

The Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) is widely used. The Brief WISDM has been found to be comparable with the full WISDM in terms of internal consistency, concurrent validity, model fit, predictive validity, and long-term stability (Smith et al., 2010).

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Tobacco Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motive (Brief WISDM) Questionnaire Assessment Score 3332528 CDE Browser
Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• No significant changes to measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Source

Piper, M. E., Piasecki, T. M., Federman, E. B., Bolt, D. M., Smith, S. S., Fiore, M. C., & Baker, T. B. (2004). A multiple motives approach to tobacco dependence: The Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(2), 139-154.

Smith, S. S., Piper, M. E., Bolt, D. M., Fiore, M. C., Wetter, D. W., Cinciripini, P. M., & Baker, T. B. (2010). Development of the Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (Brief WISDM). Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 12(5), 489-499.

General References

Piasecki, T. M., Piper, M. E., & Baker, T. B. (2010). Refining the tobacco dependence phenotype using the Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motives: II. Evidence from a laboratory self-administration assay. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(3), 513-523.

Piasecki, T. M., Piper, M. E., Baker, T. B., & Hunt-Carter, E. E. (2011). WISDM primary and secondary dependence motives: Associations with self-monitored motives for smoking in two college samples. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 114(2-3), 207-216.

Protocol ID:

520504

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX520504_Cigarettes_Best_Friends PX520504220000 Sometimes I feel like cigarettes are my best friends 4 N/A
PX520504_Cigarettes_Control_Me PX520504020000 Cigarettes control me 4 N/A
PX520504_Cigarettes_Keep_Me_Company PX520504110000 Cigarettes keep me company, like a close friend 4 N/A
PX520504_Cigarettes_Rule_My_Life PX520504160000 Sometimes I feel like cigarettes rule my life 4 N/A
PX520504_Cigarette_Flavor_Is_Pleasing PX520504050000 The flavor of a cigarette is pleasing 4 N/A
PX520504_Feel_Alone_Without_Cigarettes PX520504260000 I would feel alone without my cigarettes 4 N/A
PX520504_Frequently_Crave_Cigarettes PX520504170000 I frequently crave cigarettes 4 Variable Mapping
PX520504_Friends_Or_Family_Smoke PX520504270000 A lot of my friends or family smoke 4 N/A
PX520504_Hard_To_Ignore_Urge_Smoke PX520504040000 It's hard to ignore an urge to smoke 4 N/A
PX520504_I_Consider_Myself_Heavy_Smoker PX520504360000 I consider myself a heavy smoker 4 N/A
PX520504_Light_Cigarettes_Without_Thinking PX520504140000 I frequently light cigarettes without thinking about it 4 N/A
PX520504_Most_Cigarettes_Taste_Good PX520504150000 Most of my daily cigarettes taste good 4 N/A
PX520504_Most_Friends_Acquantances_Smoke PX520504300000 Most of my friends and acquaintances smoke 4 N/A
PX520504_People_Spend_Time_With_Smoke PX520504180000 Most of the people I spend time with are smokers 4 N/A
PX520504_Reaching_For_Cigarettes_Without_Thinking PX520504250000 I find myself reaching for cigarettes without thinking about it 4 N/A
PX520504_Really_Hooked_On_Cigarettes PX520504210000 I'm really hooked on cigarettes 4 N/A
PX520504_Reminders_To_Smoke PX520504080000 My life is full of reminders to smoke 4 N/A
PX520504_Seeing_Someone_Smoke PX520504240000 Seeing someone smoke makes me really want a cigarette 4 N/A
PX520504_Sights_Smells_Trigger_Urge_Smoke PX520504120000 There are particular sights and smells that trigger strong urges to smoke 4 N/A
PX520504_Smokers_Consider_Me_Heavy_Smoker PX520504280000 Other smokers would consider me a heavy smoker 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoke_For_Weight_Control PX520504190000 Weight control is a major reason that I smoke 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoke_Right_After_Wake PX520504030000 I usually want to smoke right after I wake up 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoke_To_Keep_Focused PX520504060000 I frequently smoke to keep my mind focused 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoke_Within_30Minutes_Of_Awakening PX520504310000 I smoke within the first 30 minutes of awakening in the morning 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoke_Without_Deciding PX520504100000 I smoke without deciding to 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoke_Without_Thinking PX520504010000 I often smoke without thinking about it 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoking_Craving_Gets_Intolerable PX520504290000 When I haven't been able to smoke for a few hours, the craving gets intolerable 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoking_Feel_Better_In_Seconds PX520504090000 Smoking helps me feel better in seconds 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoking_Feel_Better_When_FeelingGood PX520504370000 Even when I feel good, smoking helps me feel better 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoking_Helps_Me_Feel_Better PX520504330000 Smoking really helps me feel better if I've been feeling down 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoking_Helps_Me_Stay_Focused PX520504130000 Smoking helps me stay focused 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoking_Helps_Me_Think_Better PX520504320000 Smoking helps me think better 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoking_Keeps_Me_From_Overeating PX520504340000 Smoking keeps me from overeating 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoking_Out_Of_Control PX520504350000 My smoking is out of control 4 N/A
PX520504_Smoking_To_Control_Hunger PX520504070000 I rely upon smoking to control my hunger and eating 4 N/A
PX520504_Some_Cigarettes_Taste_Great PX520504200000 Some of the cigarettes I smoke taste great 4 N/A
PX520504_Urges_To_Smoke_Get_Stronger PX520504230000 My urges to smoke keep getting stronger if I don't smoke 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Motives - Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

Instruments used separately to assess the motives (reasons) for drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, or using drugs.

Purpose

The purpose of this measure is to assess motives (reasons) for drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes, or using drugs, by asking the respondent questions about his/her thoughts and motivations for such actions.The Working Group recommends that investigators incorporate two DMQ-R subscales (coping and enhancement) as core items to obtain general information on a variety of substances. The follow-up protocols (including the full version of the DMQ-R) can then be used to obtain detailed information on a single substance.

Keywords

Addiction, Alcohol, Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives, Brief WISDM, Cigarette, Conformity, Coping, Craving, Desire, DMQ-R, Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised, Drugs, Enhancement, Illicit Drugs, Marijuana, Marijuana Motives Measure, MMM, Nicotine, SAA, Social, Substance Abuse, Tobacco, Urge, Substance-specific Intermediate Phenotypes