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Protocol - School Risk and Protective Factors

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Description:

The protocol includes nine self-administered questions from two School Protective Factors subscales/constructs (Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement and Rewards for Prosocial Involvement) from the Communities That Care (CTC) Youth Survey (http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/). The CTC Survey does not include a scale of School Drug Environment (a risk factor), which is supplemented here with a scale from the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) longitudinal study.

Protocol:

CTC 2010 Youth Survey General School Environment

Instructions

1. This is not a test, so there are no right or wrong answers; we would like you to work quickly, so that you can finish.

2. All of the questions should be answered by marking one of the answer spaces. If you don’t find an answer that fits exactly, use one that comes closest. If any question does not apply to you, or you are not sure what it means, just leave it blank.

3. Your answers will be read automatically by a computer. Please follow the instructions carefully.

  • Use only a blue or black pencil.
  • Make heavy marks inside the circles.
  • Erase cleanly or mark a big "X" over any answer you wish to change.
  • Make no other markings or comments on the answer pages, since they interfere with the automatic reading. (If you want to add a comment about any questions, please use the space provided on page 12.)

4. Some of the questions have the following format:

Please mark in the circle which of the four words best describes how you feel about that sentence.

EXAMPLE: The Seattle Storm is a good basketball team.

[ ] YES!

[ ] yes

[ ] no

[ ] NO!

Mark (the BIG) YES! if you think the statement is definitely true for you.

Mark (the little) yes if you think the statement is mostly true for you.

Mark (the little) no if you think the statement is mostly not true for you.

Mark (the BIG) NO! if you think the statement is definitely not true for you.

This section asks about your experiences at school.

1. Putting them all together, what were your grades like last year? (9)

[ ] 1 Mostly F’s

[ ] 1.75 Mostly D’s

[ ] 2.5 Mostly C’s

[ ] 3.25 Mostly B’s

[ ] 4 Mostly A’s

2. During the LAST FOUR WEEKS, how many whole days of school have you missed because you skipped or "cut"? (10b)

5 [ ] None

[ ] 4.33 One

[ ] 3.67 Two

3 [ ] Three

[ ] 2.33 Four or Five

[ ] 1.67 Six to Ten

1 [ ] Eleven or more

3. In my school, students have lots of chances to help decide things like class activities and rules. (12)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

4. Teachers ask me to work on special classroom projects. (13)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

5. My teacher(s) notices when I am doing a good job and lets me know about it. (14)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

6. There are lots of chances for students in my school to get involved in sports, clubs, or other school activities outside of class. (15)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

7. There are lots of chances for students in my school to talk with a teacher one-to-one. (16)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

8. I feel safe at my school. (17)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

9. The school lets my parents know when I have done something well. (18)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

10. My teachers praise me when I work hard in school. (19)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

11. Are your school grades better than the grades of most students in your class? (20)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

12. There are lots of chances to be part of class discussions or activities. (21)

1 [ ] NO!

2 [ ] no

3 [ ] yes

4 [ ] YES!

13. How often do you feel that the schoolwork you are assigned is meaningful and important? (22)

1 [ ] Never

2 [ ] Seldom

3 [ ] Sometimes

4 [ ] Often

5 [ ] Almost Always

14. How interesting are most of your courses to you? (23)

5 [ ] Very interesting and stimulating

4 [ ] Quite interesting

3 [ ] Fairly interesting

2 [ ] Slightly boring

1 [ ] Very boring

15. How important do you think the things you are learning in school are going to be for your later life? (24)

5 [ ] Very important

4 [ ] Quite important

3 [ ] Fairly important

2 [ ] Slightly important

1 [ ] Not at all important

16. Now, thinking back over the past year in school, how often did you . . .

a. …enjoy being in school? (25a)

1 [ ] Never

2 [ ] Seldom

3 [ ] Sometimes

4 [ ] Often

5 [ ] Almost Always

b. …hate being in school? (25b)

5 [ ] Never

4 [ ] Seldom

3 [ ] Sometimes

2 [ ] Often

1 [ ] Almost Always

c. . . . try to do your best work in school? (25c)

1 [ ] Never

2 [ ] Seldom

3 [ ] Sometimes

4 [ ] Often

5 [ ] Almost Always

*************

Items from the Seattle Social Development Project Survey

School Drug Environment

Think about the school you (currently/last) (attend/attended).

1. What grade (are/were) you in?

[ ] 4 Fourth

[ ] 5 Fifth

[ ] 6 Sixth

[ ] 7 Seventh

[ ] 8 Eighth

[ ] 9 Ninth

[ ] 10 Tenth

[ ] 11 Eleventh

[ ] 12 Twelfth

2. Most people in my school think it’s OK for people my age to drink alcohol.

4 [ ] YES!

3 [ ] yes

2 [ ] no

1 [ ] NO!

3. What percentage of the students in your grade at your school have drunk any alcohol this year? Would you say . . .

[ ] 1 0% to 20% (none or almost none)

[ ] 2 21% to 40% (less than half)

[ ] 3 41% to 60% (about half)

[ ] 4 61% to 80% (more than half)

[ ] 5 81% to 100% (almost all or all)?

4. What percentage of the students in your grade at your school drank alcohol at least once or twice a month. Would you say . . .

[ ] 1 0% to 20% (none or almost none)

[ ] 2 21% to 40% (less than half)

[ ] 3 41% to 60% (about half)

[ ] 4 61% to 80% (more than half)

[ ] 5 81% to 100% (almost all or all)?

5. Most people in my school think it’s OK for people my age to smoke cigarettes.

4 [ ] YES!

3 [ ] yes

2 [ ] no

1 [ ] NO!

6. What percentage of the students in your grade at your school have smoked any cigarettes this year? Would you say . . .

[ ] 1 0% to 20% (none or almost none)

[ ] 2 21% to 40% (less than half)

[ ] 3 41% to 60% (about half)

[ ] 4 61% to 80% (more than half)

[ ] 5 81% to 100% (almost all or all)?

7. What percentage of the students in your grade at your school smoked cigarettes at least once or twice a month. Would you say . . .

[ ] 1 0% to 20% (none or almost none)

[ ] 2 21% to 40% (less than half)

[ ] 3 41% to 60% (about half)

[ ] 4 61% to 80% (more than half)

[ ] 5 81% to 100% (almost all or all)?

8. Most people in my school think it’s OK to use marijuana (pot/grass).

[ ] 4 YES!

[ ] 3 yes

[ ] 2 no

[ ] 1 NO!

9. What percentage of the students in your grade in your school have smoked any marijuana this year? Would you say . . .

[ ] 1 0% to 20% (none or almost none)

[ ] 2 21% to 40% (less than half)

[ ] 3 41% to 60% (about half)

[ ] 4 61% to 80% (more than half)

[ ] 5 81% to 100% (almost all or all)?

10. During the past year, what percentage of the students in your grade in your school have smoked marijuana at least once or twice a month? Would you say . . .

[ ] 1 0% to 20% (none or almost none)

[ ] 2 21% to 40% (less than half)

[ ] 3 41% to 60% (about half)

[ ] 4 61% to 80% (more than half)

[ ] 5 81% to 100% (almost all or all)?

Scoring

Subscalea

Reliability

Range

Scoring

School Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement

.65

1-4

Average items 3, 4, 6, 7, 12

School Rewards for Prosocial Involvement

.72

1-4

Average items 5, 8, 9, 10

Academic Performance

.63

0-4

Average items 1 and 11

Commitment to School

.82

1-5

Average items 2, 13, 14, 15, 16a, 16b, 16c from the General School Environment module.

School Alcohol Environmentb

.82

1-5

Average items 2, 3, 4 from the School Drug Environment module.

School Tobacco Environmentb

--

1-5

Average items 5, 6, 7 from the School Drug Environment module.

School Marijuana Environmentb

.86

1-5

Average items 8, 9, 10 from the School Drug Environment module.

General Summary Scales

Scoring: averages of the above subscales

General Protective School Environmentc

.80

1-4

Average items 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 from the General School Environment module.

General School Drug Environmentb

.89

1-5

Average items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 from the School Drug Environment module.

a Comparison with the CTC Normative Database. To obtain scores on the same metric as the CTC normative database, subtract 1 (from either each item, or from the means). Some scales in the CTC database are reversed scored to reflect "risk."

b These items are not in the CTC survey but are from the SSDP longitudinal study (see Adolescent Reports of School Risk and Protective Factors protocol). The reliability for General School Drug Environment is based on the Alcohol and Marijuana items only that were available in SSDP. The Tobacco items are suggested for full coverage of school drug opportunities.

c Note that this measure of General School Environmental Risk includes only School Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement and School Rewards for Prosocial Involvement. It does not include Commitment to School and Academic Performance since these, properly speaking, are more like outcomes than features of the environment. Commitment to School and Academic Performance are, however, good predictors of later substance abuse and dependence.

Protocol Name from Source:

Communities That Care (CTC) & Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP) longitudinal study

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Participants:

Adolescents aged 12-18 years (grades 6-12)

Specific Instructions:

Items below constitute the Community Subscales from the Communities That Care (CTC) 2010 Youth Survey. Item numbers at the end in parentheses reflect the original item numbers in that survey for comparison. See the full CTC Survey in the reference list for comparison.

The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes, and they should NOT be included in the administered survey.

The numbers to the left of the response option brackets are for scoring purposes and they should not be included in the administered survey.

Selection Rationale

The Communities That Care Youth Survey is in the public domain and is available at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) website. The survey reliably predicts current adolescent and prospective substance use, abuse, and dependence and related problem behaviors among adolescents. SAMHSA’s database of 300,000 youths from around the country enables investigators to derive nationally representative normative distributions for comparison to newly collected data. The Seattle Social Development Project is an ongoing longitudinal study prospectively following a community sample from 1980 (1st grade) until present (age 35) to examine the etiology of addiction.

Language

Dutch, English, French, Spanish, Available in other languages

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Substance use School Risk Factor Questionnaire Assessment Score 3371936 CDE Browser
Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• Revised descriptions of the measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Previous version in Toolkit archive (link)

Source

Arthur, M. W., Briney, J. S., Hawkins, J. D., Abbott, R. D., Brooke-Weiss, B. L., & Catalano, R. F. (2007). Measuring risk and protection in communities using the Communities That Care Youth Survey. Evaluation and Program Planning, 30(2), 197-211.

The full CTC Youth Survey is downloadable here (accessed 11/3/2015):

http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Communities-That-Care-Youth-Survey/CTC020

The SAMHSA CTC Normative Database is downloadable here (accessed 10/24/2011): https://www.pmrts.samhsa.gov/pmrts/CommunitiesCares.aspx

The Seattle Social Development Project Survey (SSDP) survey items are publicly available, and can be cited as:

Herrenkohl, T. I., Hawkins, J. D., Chung, I. J., Hill, K. G., & Battin-Pearson, S. (2001). School and community risk factors and interventions. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Child delinquents: Development, intervention, and service needs (211-246). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

General References

http://www.communitiesthatcare.net/research-results/

Bailey, J. A., Hill, K. G., Meacham, M. C., Young, S. E., & Hawkins, J. D. (2011). Strategies for characterizing complex phenotypes and environments: General and specific family environmental predictors of young adult tobacco dependence, alcohol use disorder, and co‐occurring problems. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(23), 444-451.

Beyers, J. M., Toumbourou, J. W., Catalano, R. F., Arthur, M. W., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). A cross‐national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: The United States and Australia. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(1), 3-16.

Dryfoos, J. G. (1991). Adolescents at risk: A summation of work in the field: Programs and policies. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12(8), 630-637.

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance‐abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105.

Hawkins, J. D., Herrenkohl, T., Farrington, D. P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R. F., & Harachi, T. W. (1998). A review of predictors of youth violence. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 106-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hawkins, J. D., Hill, K. G., Guo, J., & Battin, S. R. (1998, June). Common predictors of substance abuse, mental health and behavior disorders: Implications for prevention. Paper presented at the National Institute of Mental Health Office of Behavioral and Social Science, NIH Workshop on Prevention of Comorbidity, Bethesda, MD.

Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Patton, G. C., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2011). Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use in Washington state, the United States, and Victoria, Australia: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(3), 312-320.

Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (1998). Predictors of violent or serious delinquency in adolescence and early adulthood: A synthesis of longitudinal research. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 86-105). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (Eds.); Committee on Prevention of Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine. (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for prevention intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Pollard, J. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. W. (1999). Risk and protection: Are both necessary to understand diverse behavioral outcomes in adolescence? Social Work Research, 23(3), 145-158.

Protocol ID:

540501

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX540501_Chances_For_Activities_Outside_Class PX540501060000 There are lots of chances for students in my school to get involved in sports, clubs, or other school activities outside of class. (15) 4 N/A
PX540501_Days_Of_School_Skipped PX540501020000 During the LAST FOUR WEEKS, how many whole days of school have you missed because you skipped or "cut"? (10b) 4 N/A
PX540501_Feel_Safe_At_School PX540501080000 I feel safe at my school. (17) 4 N/A
PX540501_Grades_Better_Than_Most_Students PX540501110000 Are your school grades better than the grades of most students in your class? (20) 4 N/A
PX540501_Grades_Last_Year PX540501010000 Putting them all together, what were your grades like last year? (9) 4 N/A
PX540501_How_Important_Learning_Later_Life PX540501150000 How important do you think the things you are learning in school are going to be for your later life? (24) 4 N/A
PX540501_How_Interesting_Courses PX540501140000 How interesting are most of your courses to you? (23) 4 N/A
PX540501_How_Often_Enjoy_BeingIn_School PX540501160100 Now, thinking back over the past year in school, how often did you... enjoy being in school? (25a) 4 N/A
PX540501_How_Often_Hate_BeingIn_School PX540501160200 Now, thinking back over the past year in school, how often did you... ¿¿¿hate being in school? (25b) 4 N/A
PX540501_How_Often_Try_Your_Best PX540501160300 Now, thinking back over the past year in school, how often did you.......ry to do your best work in school? (25c) 4 N/A
PX540501_Meaningful_And_Important_SchoolWork PX540501130000 How often do you feel that the schoolwork you are assigned is meaningful and important? (22) 4 N/A
PX540501_My_Teachers_Praise_Me PX540501100000 My teachers praise me when I work hard in school. (19) 4 N/A
PX540501_Ok_Drink_Alcohol PX540501180000 Most people in my school think it's OK for people my age to drink alcohol. 4 N/A
PX540501_Ok_Smoke_Cigarettes PX540501210000 Most people in my school think it's OK for people my age to smoke cigarettes. 4 N/A
PX540501_Ok_Use_Marijuana PX540501240000 Most people in my school think it's OK to use marijuana (pot/grass). 4 N/A
PX540501_Part_Of_Class_Discussions_Activities PX540501120000 There are lots of chances to be part of class discussions or activities. (21) 4 N/A
PX540501_Percentage_Students_Drank_Alcohol_Monthly PX540501200000 What percentage of the students in your grade at your school drank alcohol at least once or twice a month. Would you say... 4 N/A
PX540501_Percentage_Students_Drunk_Alcohol_Yearly PX540501190000 What percentage of the students in your grade at your school have drunk any alcohol this year? Would you say... 4 N/A
PX540501_Percentage_Students_Smoked_Cigarettes_Monthly PX540501230000 What percentage of the students in your grade at your school smoked cigarettes at least once or twice a month. Would you say... 4 N/A
PX540501_Percentage_Students_Smoked_Cigarettes_Yearly PX540501220000 What percentage of the students in your grade at your school have smoked any cigarettes this year? Would you say... 4 N/A
PX540501_Percentage_Students_Smoked_Marijuana_Monthly PX540501260000 During the past year, what percentage of the students in your grade in your school have smoked marijuana at least once or twice a month? Would you say... 4 N/A
PX540501_Percentage_Students_Smoked_Marijuana_Yearly PX540501250000 What percentage of the students in your grade in your school have smoked any marijuana this year? Would you say... 4 N/A
PX540501_School_Lets_My_Parents_Know PX540501090000 The school lets my parents know when I have done something well. (18) 4 N/A
PX540501_Special_Classroom_Projects PX540501040000 Teachers ask me to work on special classroom projects. (13) 4 N/A
PX540501_Students_Help_Decide_Activities_Rules PX540501030000 In my school, students have lots of chances to help decide things like class activities and rules. (12) 4 N/A
PX540501_Talk_With_A_Teacher PX540501070000 There are lots of chances for students in my school to talk with a teacher one-to-one. (16) 4 N/A
PX540501_Teacher_Notices_Good_Job PX540501050000 My teacher(s) notices when I am doing a good job and lets me know about it. (14) 4 N/A
PX540501_What_Grade PX540501170000 What grade (are/were) you in? 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

School Risk and Protective Factors

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This measure assesses the level and prevalence of adolescents’ exposure to substance use risk and protective factors in the school environment, an adolescent’s perceptions about the opportunities and rewards in school.

Purpose

This measure can be used to identify specific school-related risk and protective factors that can predict adolescent (and later life) substance use and abuse (Hemphill et al., 2011; Beyers et al., 2004).

Keywords

Adolescent, Self-report, Opportunities for Prosocial Involvement, Rewards for Prosocial Involvement, School Drug Environment, School, Communities That Care Youth Survey, SAMHSA, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Substance use, Substance abuse, Drug abuse, Drug use, SAA, Substance Use-related Psychosocial Risk Factors