Loading…

Protocol - Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)

Add to My Toolkit
Description:

The Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) is a self-reported instrument that includes 48 yes/no questions divided into two subscales: Sensitivity to Reward (SR) and Sensitivity to Punishment (SP).

Protocol:

Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)

Please answer the following questions by checking either yes or no.

Yes

No

1. Do you often refrain from doing something because you are afraid of it being illegal?

2. Does the good prospect of obtaining money motivate you strongly to do some things?

3. Do you prefer not to ask for something when you are not sure you will obtain it?

4. Are you frequently encouraged to act by the possibility of being valued in your work, in your studies, with your friends or with your family?

5. Are you often afraid of new or unexpected situations?

6. Do you often meet people that you find physically attractive?

7. Is it difficult for you to telephone someone you do not know?

8. Do you like to take some drugs because of the pleasure you get from them?

9. Do you often renounce your rights when you know you can avoid a quarrel with a person or an organization?

10. Do you often do things to be praised?

11. As a child, were you troubled by punishments at home or in school?

12. Do you like being the center of attention at a party or a social meeting?

13. In tasks that you are not prepared for, do you attach great importance to the possibility of failure?

14. Do you spend a lot of your time on obtaining a good image?

15. Are you easily discouraged in difficult situations?

16. Do you need people to show their affection for you all the time?

17. Are you a shy person?

18. When you are in a group, do you try to make your opinions the most intelligent or the funniest?

19. Whenever possible, do you avoid demonstrating your skills for fear of being embarrassed?

20. Do you often take the opportunity to pick up people you find attractive?

21. When you are with a group, do you have difficulties selecting a good topic to talk about?

22. As a child, did you do a lot of things to get people’s approval?

23. Is it often difficult for you to fall asleep when you think about things you have done or must do?

24. Does the possibility of social advancement, move you to action, even if this involves not playing fair?

25. Do you think a lot before complaining in a restaurant if your meal is not well prepared?

26. Do you generally give preferences to those activities that imply an immediate gain?

27. Would you be bothered if you had to return to a store when you noticed you were given the wrong change?

28. Do you often have trouble resisting the temptation of doing forbidden things?

29. Whenever you can, do you avoid going to unknown places?

30. Do you like to compete and do everything you can to win?

31. Are you often worried by things that you said or did?

32. Is it easy for you to associate tastes and smells to very pleasant events?

33. Would it be difficult for you to ask your boss for a raise (salary increase)?

34. Are there a large number of objects or sensations that remind you of pleasant events?

35. Do you generally try to avoid speaking in public?

36. When you start to play with a slot machine, is it often difficult for you to stop?

37. Do you, on a regular basis, think that you could do more things if it was not for your insecurity or fear?

38. Do you sometimes do things for quick gains?

39. Comparing yourself to people you know, are you afraid of many things?

40. Does your attention easily stray from your work in the presence of an attractive stranger?

41. Do you often find yourself worrying about things to the extent that performance in intellectual abilities is impaired?

42. Are you interested in money to the point of being able to do risky jobs?

43. Do you often refrain from doing something you like in order not to be rejected or disapproved of by others?

44. Do you like to put competitive ingredients in all of your activities?

45. Generally, do you pay more attention to threats than to pleasant events?

46. Would you like to be a socially powerful person?

47. Do you often refrain from doing something because of your fear of being embarrassed?

48. Do you like displaying your physical abilities even though this may involve danger?

Scoring:

Subscale scores are derived by summing the responses of the individual items.

Sensitivity to reward subscale: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48.

Sensitivity to punishment subscale: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47.

Protocol Name from Source:

Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Adolescents and adults, ages 14 and older

Specific Instructions:

Two self-report measures exist that were designed specifically to assess reinforcement sensitivity according to Gray’s model of personality (Gray, 1981; Gray, 1982): The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver and White, 1994) and the Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ; Torrubia et al., 2001). Although the BIS/BAS scales have been applied most frequently in behavioral, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, some have criticized the scales’ approach toward measuring ‘‘generalized sensitivity to reward and punishment, while Gray’s theory deals with sensitivity to specific cues’’ (Carver and White, 1994; Torrubia et al., 2001; Zinbarg and Revelle, 1989; Matthews and Gililand, 1999). In response to that criticism, the SPSRQ was developed to test behavior inhibition and activation systems employing questions related to very specific cues and situations. The SPSRQ has been validated for use with people with eating disorders (Beck et al., 2009), supporting the assessment of reward sensitivity in anorexia nervosa. Additionally, the SPSRQ has been shown to be more sensitive than the BIS/BAS scales in distinguishing between participants with eating disorders. In particular, the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) subscale from the SPSRQ can distinguish those with eating disorders more accurately than the comparable BAS subscale from the BIS/BAS (Jappe et al., 2011; Matton et al., 2013; Matton et al., 2015).

Selection Rationale

The Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) is a validated, reliable, self-administered instrument that is easy to score and interpret. In comparison to other questionnaires that measure Reinforcement Sensitivity (e.g., the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system [BIS/BAS] scales), the SPSRQ performs better in populations with eating disorders.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Eating Disorder Sensitivity to Punishment and Reward Questionnaire Assessment Scale 4926458 CDE Browser
Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• No significant changes to measure

Back-compatible: NA no changes to Data Dictionary

Source

Torrubia, R., Avila, C., Molto, J., & Caseras, X. (2001). The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of Gray’s anxiety and impulsivity dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(6), 837-862.

General References

Beck, I., Smits, D. J. M., Claes, L., Vandereycken, W., & Bijttebier, P. (2009). Psychometric evaluation of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation System Scales and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire in a sample of eating disordered patients. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 407-412

Bijttebier, P., Beck, I., Claes, L., & Vandereycken, W. (2009). Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory as a framework for research on personality-psychopathology associations. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 421-430.

Burgess, E. E., Turan, B., Lokken, K. L., Morse, A., & Boggiano, M. M. (2014). Profiling motives behind hedonic eating. Preliminary validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale. Appetite, 72, 66-72.

Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 319-333.

Cogswell, A., Alloy, L. B., van Dulmen M. H. M., & Fresco, D. M. (2006). A psychometric evaluation of behavioral inhibition and approach self-report measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1649-1658.

Davis, G. (2013). A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4, 1-9.

Glashouwer, K. A., Bloot, L., Veenstra, E. M., Franken, I. H. A., & De Jong, P. J. (2014). Heightened sensitivity to punishment and reward in anorexia nervosa. Appetite, 75, 97-102.

Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In H.J. Eysenck (ed.), A model for personality (pp. 246-276). New York: Springer.

Gray, J. A. (1982). Neuropsychological theory of anxiety. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hennegan, J. M., Loxton, N. J., & Mattar, A. (2013). Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating. Appetite, 71, 81-88.

Jappe, L. M., Frank, G. K. W., Shott, M. E., Rollin, M. D. H., Pryor, T., Hagman, J. O., Yang, T. T., & Davis, E. (2011). Heightened sensitivity to reward and punishment in anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44, 317-324.

Matthews, G., & Gilliland, K. (1999). The personality theories of H. J. Eysenck and J. A. Gray: A comparative review. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 583-626.

Matton, A., Goossens, L., Braet, C., & Vervaet, M. (2013). Punishment and reward sensitivity: Are naturally occurring clusters in these traits related to eating and weight problems in adolescents? European Eating Disorders Review, 21, 184-194.

Matton, A., Goossens, L., Vervaet, M., & Braet, C. (2015). Temperamental differences between adolescents and young adults with or without an eating disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry 56, 229-238.

Zinbarg, R., & Revelle, W. (1989). Personality and conditioning: a test of four models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(2), 301-314.

Protocol ID:

540603

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX540603_SPSRQ_Associate_TastesSmells_Pleasant_Events PX540603320000 Is it easy for you to associate tastes and smells to very pleasant events? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Avoid_Demonstrating_Fear_Embarrassment PX540603190000 Whenever possible, do you avoid demonstrating your skills for fear of being embarrassed? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Avoid_Going_Unknown_Places PX540603290000 Whenever you can, do you avoid going to unknown places? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Avoid_Public_Speaking PX540603350000 Do you generally try to avoid speaking in public? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_BotheredTo_Return_Store_WrongChange PX540603270000 Would you be bothered if you had to return to a store when you noticed you were given the wrong change? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_CenterOf_Attention_PartySocialMeeting PX540603120000 Do you like being the center of attention at a party or a social meeting? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Compete_DoEverything PX540603300000 Do you like to compete and do everything you can to win? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Competitive_Ingredients_All_Activities PX540603440000 Do you like to put competitive ingredients in all of your activities? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_CouldDoMore_Without_InsecurityFear PX540603370000 Do you, on a regular basis, think that you could do more things if it was not for your insecurity or fear? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficulty_Resisting_Temptation_ForbiddenThings PX540603280000 Do you often have trouble resisting the temptation of doing forbidden things? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficulty_Sleep_ThingsToDo PX540603230000 Is it often difficult for you to fall asleep when you think about things you have done or must do? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficulty_Telephone_Stranger PX540603070000 Is it difficult for you to telephone someone you do not know? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficult_Ask_Boss_SalaryIncrease PX540603330000 Would it be difficult for you to ask your boss for a raise (salary increase)? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Difficult_ToStop_SlotMachine PX540603360000 When you start to play with a slot machine, is it often difficult for you to stop? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_DiscouragedIn_Difficult_Situations PX540603150000 Are you easily discouraged in difficult situations? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Display_PhysicalAbilities_Involve_Danger PX540603480000 Do you like displaying your physical abilities even though this may involve danger? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_DistractedFrom_Work_Attractive_Stranger PX540603400000 Does your attention easily stray from your work in the presence of an attractive stranger? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Do_ThingsFor_Approval_AsChild PX540603220000 As a child, did you do a lot of things to get people's approval? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Do_ThingsFor_QuickGains PX540603380000 Do you sometimes do things for quick gains? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Encouraged_ToAct_ToBe_Valued PX540603040000 Are you frequently encouraged to act by the possibility of being valued in your work, in your studies, with your friends or with your family? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_FearOf_Many_Things PX540603390000 Comparing yourself to people you know, are you afraid of many things? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Get_Pleasure_From_Drugs PX540603080000 Do you like to take some drugs because of the pleasure you get from them? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_GivePreferenceTo_Activities_With_ImmediateGain PX540603260000 Do you generally give preferences to those activities that imply an immediate gain? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Group_Difficulty_Discussion_Topic PX540603210000 When you are with a group, do you have difficulties selecting a good topic to talk about? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_ImportanceOn_PossibilityOf_Failure PX540603130000 In tasks that you are not prepared for, do you attach great importance to the possibility of failure? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_InGroup_Make_MostIntelligentFunniest_Comments PX540603180000 When you are in a group, do you try to make your opinions the most intelligent or the funniest? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Meet_People_Physically_Attractive PX540603060000 Do you often meet people that you find physically attractive? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Money_Motivate_Risky_Jobs PX540603420000 Are you interested in money to the point of being able to do risky jobs? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_More_Attention_To_Threats PX540603450000 Generally, do you pay more attention to threats than to pleasant events? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Need_Constant_ShowOf_Affection PX540603160000 Do you need people to show their affection for you all the time? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_NotDoSomething_Fear_Legality PX540603010000 Do you often refrain from doing something because you are afraid of it being illegal? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_NotToAskWhen_NotSure_Obtainable PX540603030000 Do you prefer not to ask for something when you are not sure you will obtain it? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Objects_Sensations_Reminder_PleasantEvents PX540603340000 Are there a large number of objects or sensations that remind you of pleasant events? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Often_Afraid_NewUnexpected_Situations PX540603050000 Are you often afraid of new or unexpected situations? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Often_Do_Things_ForPraise PX540603100000 Do you often do things to be praised? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Often_PickUp_Attractive_People PX540603200000 Do you often take the opportunity to pick up people you find attractive? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_ProspectOf_Money_Motivation PX540603020000 Does the good prospect of obtaining money motivate you strongly to do some things? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Refrain_DoingSomething_Avoid_DisapprovalRejection PX540603430000 Do you often refrain from doing something you like in order not to be rejected or disapproved of by others? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Refrain_DoingSomething_Fear_Embarrassment PX540603470000 Do you often refrain from doing something because of your fear of being embarrassed? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Renounce_Rights_Avoid_Quarrel PX540603090000 Do you often renounce your rights when you know you can avoid a quarrel with a person or an organization? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Shy_Person PX540603170000 Are you a shy person? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_SocialAdvancement_Motivation_NotFairPlay PX540603240000 Does the possibility of social advancement, move you to action, even if this involves not playing fair? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Socially_Powerful_Person PX540603460000 Would you like to be a socially powerful person? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_ThinkBefore_Complaining_Restaurant_Meal PX540603250000 Do you think a lot before complaining in a restaurant if your meal is not well prepared? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Time_Spent_Obtaining_Image PX540603140000 Do you spend a lot of your time on obtaining a good image? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_TroubledBy_Punishments_At_HomeSchool PX540603110000 As a child, were you troubled by punishments at home or in school? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_WorriedBy_Things_You_SaidDid PX540603310000 Are you often worried by things that you said or did? 4 N/A
PX540603_SPSRQ_Worry_Impairs_intellectual_Performance PX540603410000 Do you often find yourself worrying about things to the extent that performance in intellectual abilities is impaired? 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

This measure assesses the participant’s sensitivity to two motivational systems: the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral activation system (BAS).

Purpose

The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) alerts the person to danger and punishment through feelings of anxiety and therefore inhibits behavior that leads to negative consequences. The behavioral activation system (BAS) alerts the person to reward through feelings of elation and therefore promotes behavior that leads to positive consequences. Various psychological disorders-such as attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse-may result from an imbalance in one motivational system or the other (Bijttebier et al., 2009).

Keywords

Adolescent, Adult, BAS, Behavioral activation system, Behavioral inhibition system, BIS, Incentive, Motivation, Personality, Punishment, Reinforcement sensitivity, Reward, Substance abuse, Substance use, SAA, Substance Use-related Psychosocial Risk Factors