Protocol - Duration of Abstinence - Substance Use
Respondents answer questions from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) related to recent prescription and illegal drug use.
- When was the most recent time you used (Name of drug category)?
Protocol Name from Source:
National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III)
Personnel and Training Required
The interviewer must be trained and found competent to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided. It is preferable to either read the questionnaire aloud to the respondent or administer it in an audio-assisted computer interview (ACASI) format. The questions are sensitive in nature, and the interviewer should be trained to react appropriately to emotional responses. If a distressed respondent protocol is adopted, the interviewer should be trained to administer those procedures.
While the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5) instrument was developed for administration by computer, the PhenX WG acknowledges that these questions can be administered in a noncomputerized format. Hasin et al. (1997) and Grant et al. (1995) used the AUDADIS in paper-and-pencil format, while Grant et al. (2003) obtained data with the computerized format.
|Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection||No|
|Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual||No|
Mode of Administration
Adults aged 18 years or older
The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition Version (AUDADIS-5) Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Scoring Algorithms are provided for data interpretation. Please click here to access the scoring algorithm document. The algorithms were constructed by Yoanna McDowell, M.A, under the supervision of Dr. Kenneth Sher (University of Missouri) in 2017 and posted here with their permission. They were verified by diagnostic variables available in the NESARC-III data set and published NESARC-III diagnostic and severity prevalence data. Users are solely responsible for the use and interpretation of the algorithms and results.
Due to the complexity of the algorithms and associated analysis, Expert Review Panel 3 recommends analysis be performed by a statistician who has experience using NESARC datasets,
The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition Version (AUDADIS-5) is a complex diagnostic instrument that likely requires expertise with SAS and the NESARC dataset in order to successfully implement scoring algorithms. Investigators interested in briefer, screening-level assessments of alcohol and other substance use disorders are encouraged to review assessments of this collection:
The following question may gather sensitive information relating to the use of substances or illegal conduct. If the information is released it might be damaging to an individual’s employability, lead to social stigmatization, or result in other consequences.
For information on obtaining a Certificate of Confidentiality, which helps researchers protect the privacy of human research participants, please go to the National Human Genome Research Institute’s Institutional Review Board website (http://www.genome.gov/10005108).
To verify a respondent’s answer, the PhenX Working Group (WG) recommends that the researcher follow up with a urine dipstick test. The WG suggests that prior to asking the question, respondents be informed that a urine dipstick test will follow in order to improve the veracity of their responses.
Respondents are asked this follow-up question only if there is a positive response to the PhenX Substances - Lifetime Use measure. The drug categories are provided below:
- Sedatives or tranquilizers
- Cocaine or crack
- Club drugs
- Inhalants or solvents
Respondents can refer to the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) flashcard that provides examples of each.
FLASHCARD 40 ]]
TYPES OF MEDICINES/DRUGS
1 Sedatives or tranquilizers, for example…barbs, downers, Ambien, Lunesta, phenobarbital, pentobarbital, Halcion, Tuinal, Nembutal, Seconal, Librium, Valium, Xanax, benzodiazepines, tranks, Ativan
2 Painkillers, for example…methadone, codeine, Demerol, Vicodin, OxyContin, opium, oxy, Percocet, Dilaudid, Percodan, morphine
3 Marijuana, including THC, for example…weed, pot, dope, hashish, Mary Jane, joint, blunt
4 Cocaine or crack, for example…blow, rock, snow
5 Stimulants, for example…Adderall, Concerta, Cylert, Provigil, Ritalin or Dexedrine, speed, amphetamine, methamphetamine, uppers, bennies, pep pills, crystal, crank
6 Club drugs, for example…MDMA, ecstasy, GHB, Rohypnol, ketamine, Special K, XTC, roofies
7 Hallucinogens, for example…LSD, acid, PCP, mescaline, peyote, psilocybin, mushrooms, angel dust, cactus
8 Inhalants or solvents, for example…nitrous oxide, lighter fluid, gasoline, cleaning fluid, glue, poppers, whippets
9 Heroin, for example…smack, black tar, poppy
10 Any OTHER medicines
The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) captures diagnostic information via the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5). Therefore, the user can link diagnostic data from the NESARC directly to treatment utilization also collected from the NESARC.
Process and Review
The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP3) reviewed the measures in the Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances domain and in the Substance Abuse and Addiction Collection.
Guidance from the ERP includes:
- Updated protocol (same source)
Partially back-compatible (updated/similar protocol which would require some changes to the data dictionary), variable mapping between current and previous protocols can be found here (link).
Previous version in Toolkit archive.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (N.d.). National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III). Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health. Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5), Section 3B - Medicine Use (Question 2d).
Grant, B. F., Dawson, D. A., Stinson, F. S., Chou, P. S., Kay, W., & Pickering, R. (2003). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): Reliability of alcohol consumption, tobacco use, family history of depression and psychiatric diagnostic modules in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 71(1), 7-16.
Grant, B. F., Goldstein, R. B., Saha, T. D., Chou, S. P., Jung, J., Zhang, H., Pickering, R. P., Ruan, W. J., Smith, S. M., Huang, B., Hasin, D. S. (2015). Epidemiology of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(8), 757-766.
Grant, B. F., Goldstein, R. B., Smith, S. M., Jung, J., Zhang, H., Chou, S. P., Pickering, R. P., Ruan, W. J., Huang, B., Saha, T. D., Aivadyan, C., Greenstein, E., & Hasin, D.S. (2015). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5): Reliability of substance use and psychiatric disorder modules in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 148, 27-33.
Hasin, D. S., Greenstein, E., Aivadyan, C., Stohl, M., Aharonovich, E., Saha, T., Goldstein, R., Nunes, E. V., Jung, J., Zhang, H., & Grant, B. F. (2015). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5): Procedural validity of substance use disorders modules through clinical re-appraisal in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 148, 40-46.
Grant, B. F., Harford, T. C., Dawson, D. A., Chou, P. S., & Pickering, R. P. (1995). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS): Reliability of alcohol and drug modules in a general population sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 39(1), 37-44.
Hasin, D., Carpenter, K. M., McCloud, S., Smith, M., & Grant, B. F. (1997). The alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities interview schedule (AUDADIS): Reliability of alcohol and drug modules in a clinical sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 44(2-3), 133-141.
Hasin, D. S., O’Brien, C. P., Auriacombe, M., Borges, G., Bucholz, K., Budney, A., Compton, W. M., Crowley, T., Ling, W., Petry, N. M., Schuckit, M., & Grant, B. F. (2013). DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders: Recommendations and rationale. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(8), 834-851.
|Variable Name||Variable ID||Variable Description||Version||dbGaP Mapping|
Duration of Abstinence
November 28, 2017
Question asking respondents about the most recent time they consumed alcohol or used substances.
The purpose of this measure is to ask respondents the last time they consumed any type of alcohol or prescription and illegal drugs.
Abstinence, alcohol, alcohol use, Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, AUDADIS, National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, NESARC, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIAAA, substance abuse and addiction, SAA, substance use, Substance Use-related Co-morbidities and Health-related Outcomes,