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Protocol - Self-Help Involvement

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Description:

The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) Self-Help Involvement Scale (SHIS) is a self-report instrument comprised of 1 item about days attending self-help meetings in the past 90 days, 16 items with yes/no questions about behaviors associated with engaging in self-help in the past 90 days, and 1 item with a check-all-that-apply list of types of self-help meeting involvement.

Protocol:

Summary of Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN)

The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) originated in 1993 as a collaborative effort between clinicians, researchers, and policymakers to create a comprehensive and standardized biopsychosocial assessment tool.

The GAIN has developed into a progressive and integrated family of instruments with a series of measures and computer applications designed to support a number of treatment practices, including:

· Initial screenings (GAIN-SS)

· Brief interventions and referrals (GAIN-Q3)

· Standardized clinical assessments for diagnosis, placement, and treatment planning (GAIN-I)

· Monitoring change in clinical status, service utilization, and costs to society (GAIN-M90)

· Subgroup and program-level needs assessment, evaluation, and secondary analysis

The GAIN family of instruments is appropriate for use with both adolescents and adults from a variety of populations in various levels of care, including: outpatient, intensive outpatient, short-term residential, long-term residential, therapeutic community, justice programs, school-based programs, welfare programs, co-occurring disorder programs, and primary health care programs

The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) instruments can be obtained by contacting the GAIN Coordinating Center at http://gaincc.org/instruments/ or via email: gaininfo@chestnut.org

Protocol Name from Source:

Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) Self-Help Involvement Scale (SHIS)

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

Interviewer must be trained and found competent to conduct personal interviews with individuals from the general population. The interviewer should be trained to prompt respondents further if a "don’t know" response is provided.

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Adolescents and adults aged 12 years or older

Specific Instructions:

None

Selection Rationale

Attendance, engagement, and affiliation with self-help groups are associated with increasing the likelihood of initiating and staying in recovery (Dennis et al., 2007; Humphreys et al., 1998; Kingree, 1997; Montgomery et al., 1995; Sheeren, 1988; Tonigan et al., 1996; Toumbourou et al., 2002). The Self-Help Involvement Scale (SHIS; Riley et al., under review) has been found to be predictive of transitioning from using alcohol and other drugs in the community and to sustaining recovery for selected periods of time. It is also associated with the transition from using alcohol and other drugs in the community to going back to substance use treatment.

Table 1 shows the norms for SHIS, by age. Syntax, psychometrics, and norms are available at www.chestnut.org/li/gain. Note that the degree of involvement is significantly related to age with the mean score growing from 1.11 for those adolescents (ages 1217) to 3.78 among young adults (ages 1825) to 6.60 among adults (ages 26 or older). This represents a very real difference in the availability of self-help meetings targeted at youth and young adults.

Table 1. Self-Help Involvement Scale (SHIS), by age

Age Groups

N

Alpha

Mean

Standard Deviation

Low (0)

Moderate (111)

High (1227)

1217

2,537

0.93

1.11

3.51

88%

8%

4%

1825

1,071

0.94

3.78

6.09

67%

17%

17%

26+

1,192

0.86

6.60

7.93

53%

14%

33%

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) 2010 data set.

Language

English, English, Spanish, Spanish

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Substance use Self Help Involvement Questionnaire Assessment Score 3375226 CDE Browser
Process and Review

The Expert Review Panel #3 (ERP 3) reviewed the measures in Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Substances, and Substance Abuse and Addiction domains.

Guidance from ERP 3 includes:

• Changed name of Measure

• Updated protocol

• New Data Dictionary

Back-compatible: Not back-compatible (vastly different than previous protocol which would require a new data dictionary) and not recommended for use (discredited or no longer considered broadly validated)

Source

Dennis, M. L., Titus, J. C., White, M., Unsicker, J., & Hodgkins, D. (2003). Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN): Administration guide for the GAIN and related measures. Version 5. Bloomington, IL: Chestnut Health Systems. Retrieved on September 14, 2011, www.chestnut.org/li/gain.

Riley, B. B., Dennis, M. L., Scott, C. K., & White, W.W. (under review). Validation of the Self-Help Involvement Scale (SHIS). Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

General References

Dennis, M. L., Foss, M. A., & Scott, C. K. (2007). An eight-year perspective on the relationship between the duration of abstinence and other aspects of recovery. Evaluation Review, 31, 585-612.

Dennis, M. L., Titus, J. C., White, M., Unsicker, J., & Hodgkins, D. (2003). Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN): Administration guide for the GAIN and related measures. Version 5. Bloomington, IL: Chestnut Health Systems.

Humphreys, K., Kaskutas, L., & Weisner, C. (1998). The Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale: Development, reliability, and norms for diverse treated and untreated populations. Alcoholism: Clinical and E×perimental Research, 22(5), 974-978.

Kingree, J. (1997). Measuring affiliation with 12-step groups. Substance Use & Misuse, 32(2), 181.

Montgomery, H. A., Miller, W. R., & Tonigan, J. S. (1995). Does Alcoholics Anonymous involvement predict treatment outcome? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 12(4), 241-246.

Riley, B. B., Dennis, M. L., Scott, C. K., & White, W.W. (under review). Validation of the Self-Help Involvement Scale (SHIS). Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

Sheeren, M. (1988). The relationship between relapse and involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 49(1), 104-106.

Tonigan, J., Connors, G., & Miller, W. (1996). Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement (AAI) scale: Reliability and norms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 10, 75-80.

Toumbourou, J. W., Hamilton, M., U’Ren, A., Stevens-Jones, P., & Storey, G. (2002). Narcotics Anonymous participation and changes in substance use and social support. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 23, 61-66.

Protocol ID:

560602

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Self-Help Involvement

Release Date:

November 21, 2016

Definition

A scale based on the days of self-help meetings attended, behaviors associated with engaging in self-help, and whether the person is "affiliated" with one or more self-help groups.

Purpose

To measure involvement in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) and in similar recovery group participation.

Keywords

Global Appraisal of Individual Needs, GAIN, Self-help, Attendance, Engagement and affiliation, Alcoholics Anonymous, AA, Narcotics Anonymous, NA, SAA, Substance Use-related Co-morbidities and Health-related Outcomes, proprietary