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Protocol - Behavior Economics/Purchase Behavior

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Description:

The Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) is a simulation procedure to assess reinforcement efficacy of cigarettes within a specific context. The CPT came from an adaptation of a progressive-ratio operant schedule and early studies were a bit literal in the use of doubling response requirements, up to prices that were not plausible in the current market. Subsequent studies have involved using different prices to find the right balance of precision and comprehensiveness.

Protocol:

Read to participant:

CPT - State assessment: Imagine that you could smoke RIGHT NOW. The following questions ask how many cigarettes you would consume if they cost various amounts of money. Assume the available cigarettes are your favorite brand. Assume that you have the same income/savings that you have now and NO ACCESS to any cigarettes or other nicotine products. In addition, assume that you cannot save or stockpile cigarettes for a later date.

Be sure to consider each price increment carefully.

1. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

FREE?

[$0/pack]

2. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

1¢ each?

[20¢/pack]

3. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

5¢ each?

[$1/pack]

4. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

13¢ each?

[$2.60/pack]

5. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

25¢ each?

[$5.00/pack]

6. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

50¢ each?

[$10/pack]

7. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$1 each?

[$20/pack]

8. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$2 each?

[$40/pack]

9. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$3 each?

[$60/pack]

10. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$4 each?

[$80/pack]

11. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$5 each?

[$100/pack]

12. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$6 each?

[$120/pack]

13. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$11 each?

[$220/pack]

14. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$35 each?

[$700/pack]

15. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$70 each?

[$1,400/pack]

16. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$140 each?

[$2,800/pack]

17. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$280 each?

[$5,600/pack]

18. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$560 each?

[$11,200/pack]

19. How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were

$1,120?

[$22,400/pack]

CPT - Trait assessment: Think about a TYPICAL DAY. The following questions ask how many cigarettes you would consume if they cost various amounts of money. Assume the available cigarettes are your favorite brand. Assume that you have the same income/savings that you have now and NO ACCESS to any cigarettes or nicotine products other than those offered at these prices. In addition, assume that you would consume cigarettes that you request at this time. You cannot save or stockpile cigarettes for a later date. Be sure to consider each price increment carefully.

1. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

FREE?

[$0/pack]

2. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

1¢ each?

[20¢/pack]

3. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

5¢ each?

[$1/pack]

4. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

13¢ each?

[$2.60/pack]

5. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

25¢ each?

[$5/pack]

6. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

50¢ each?

[$10/pack]

7. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$1 each?

[$20/pack]

8. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$2 each?

[$40/pack]

9. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$3 each?

[$60/pack]

10. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$4 each?

[$80/pack]

11. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$5 each?

[$100/pack]

12. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$6 each?

[$120/pack]

13. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$11 each?

[$220/pack]

14. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$35 each?

[$700/pack]

15. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$70 each?

[$1,400/pack]

16. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$140each?

[$2,800/pack]

17. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$280each?

[$5,600/pack]

18. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$560each?

[$11,200/pack]

19. How many cigarettes would you smoke on a typical day if they were

$1,120each

[$22,400/pack]

For adolescents, alternate prices can be considered: Estimated cigarette consumption was assessed at $0.00, $0.01, $0.05, $0.13, $0.25, $0.50, $1.00, $1.50, $2.00, $2.50, $3.00, $4.00, $5.00, $6.00, $7.00, $8.00, $9.00, $11.00, $35.00, $70.00, $140.00, $280.00, $560.00, and $1,120.00 per cigarette.

"The CPT data can generate five demand indices:

1. breakpoint (first price at which cigarette consumption is zero;

2. demand intensity (cigarette consumption at the lowest price);

3. Omax (output maximum, or maximum financial expenditure on cigarettes);

4. Pmax (price maximum, or price at which expenditure is maximized); and

5. elasticity of demand (sensitivity of cigarette consumption to increases in cost). To generate an estimate of elasticity, demand curves were estimated by fitting each participant’s reported consumption across the range of prices to Hursh and Silberberg’s (2008) exponential demand curve equation: ln Q: = lnQ0 + k(eαP −1), in which Q is the quantity consumed, k specifies the range of the dependent variable (cigarette consumption) in logarithmic units, and α specifies the rate of change in consumption with changes in price (elasticity). The value of k (3.5 in natural log units in the present study, based on the best fit with the sample mean consumption values) is constant across all curve fits. Individual differences in elasticity are thereby scaled with a single parameter (α) which is standardized and independent of reinforcer magnitude. Larger α values reflect greater price sensitivity (elasticity). Demand curves were fit according to the Hursh and Silberberg (2008) guidelines using the calculator provided on the Institute for Behavioral Resources website. This nonlinear regression was used to generate an R2 value, reflecting percentage of variance accounted for by the equation. Consistent with Jacobs and Bickel (1999), when fitting the demand curve data, the first zero consumption value (i.e., breakpoint) was replaced by an arbitrarily low but nonzero value of .001, which is necessary for the logarithmic transformations. We did not include subsequent 0 consumption values in our curve estimates." Taken from Murphy et al. (2011).

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent, Adult

Participants:

Cigarette smokers ages 14 and up

Specific Instructions:

Current smoking status must be ascertained before implementing this protocol. Proceed only if subject is a current smoker.

Selection Rationale

The Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) is a time- and cost-efficient assessment of cigarette value. It has good reliability and test-retest stability. It is related to dependence and cigarettes per day and has been validated with adolescents. Behavioral economics and purchase behavior are primary outcomes of tobacco regulatory research and can be used to assess the abuse liability of tobacco products.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Tobacco Use Behavior Economics Assessment Text 4719154 CDE Browser
Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Few, L. R., Acker, J., Murphy, C., & MacKillop, J. (2012). Temporal stability of a cigarette purchase task. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 14, 761-765.

Hursh, S. R., & Silberberg, A. (2008). Economic demand and essential value. Psychological Review, 115, 186-198.

Murphy, J. G., MacKillop, J., Tidey, J. W., Brazil, L. A., & Colby, S. M. (2011). Validity of a demand curve measure of nicotine reinforcement with adolescent smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 113, 207-214.

General References

Chase, H. W., MacKillop, J., & Hogarth, L. (2013). Isolating behavioral economic indices of demand in relation to nicotine dependence. Psychopharmacology, 226, 371-380.

Jacobs, E. A., & Bickel, W. K. (1999). Modeling drug consumption in the clinic using simulation procedures: Demand for heroin and cigarettes in opioid-dependent outpatients. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 7, 412-426. doi:10.1037/1064-1297.7.4.412.

Liao, W., Luo, X., Le, C. T., Chu, H., Epstein, L. H., Yu, J., Ahluwalia, J. S., & Thomas, S. L. (2013). Analysis of cigarette purchase task instrument data with a left-censored mixed effects model. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 21, 124-132.

MacKillop, J., Brown, C. L., Stojek, M. K, Murphy, C. M., Sweet, L, & Niaura, R. (2012). Behavioral economic analysis of withdrawal- and cue-elicited craving for tobacco: An initial investigation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12, 1426-1434.

Protocol ID:

710401

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_0 PX710401010000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were FREE? [$0/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_1120Dollar PX710401190000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $1,120? [$22,400/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_11Dollar PX710401130000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $11 each? [$220/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_13cents PX710401040000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 13$ each? [$2.60/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_140Dollar PX710401160000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $140 each? [$2,800/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_1cent PX710401020000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 1$ each? [20$/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_1Dollar PX710401070000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $1 each? [$20/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_25cents PX710401050000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 25$ each? [$5.00/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_280Dollar PX710401170000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $280 each? [$5,600/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_2Dollar PX710401080000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $2 each? [$40/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_35Dollar PX710401140000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_3Dollar PX710401090000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $3 each? [$60/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_4Dollar PX710401100000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $4 each? [$80/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_50cents PX710401060000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 50$ each? [$10/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_560Dollar PX710401180000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $560 each? [$11,200/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_5cents PX710401030000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were 5$ each? [$1pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_5Dollar PX710401110000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $5 each? [$100/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_6Dollar PX71040112000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $6 each? [$120/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Right_Now_Cig_Smoke_70Dollar PX710401150000 How many cigarettes would you smoke RIGHT NOW if they were $70 each? [$1,400/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_0 PX710401200000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were FREE? [$0/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_1120Dollar PX710401380000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $1,120? [$22,400/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_11Dollar PX710401320000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $11 each? [$220/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_13cents PX710401230000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 13$ each? [$2.60/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_140Dollar PX710401350000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $140 each? [$2,800/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_1cent PX710401210000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 1$ each? [20$/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_1Dollar PX710401260000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $1 each? [$20/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_25cents PX710401240000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 25$ each? [$5.00/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_280Dollar PX710401360000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $280 each? [$5,600/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_2Dollar PX710401270000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $2 each? [$40/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_35Dollar PX710401330000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_3Dollar PX710401280000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $3 each? [$60/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_4Dollar PX710401290000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $4 each? [$80/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_50cents PX710401250000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 50$ each? [$10/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_560Dollar PX710401370000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $560 each? [$11,200/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_5cents PX710401220000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were 5$ each? [$1pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_5Dollar PX710401300000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $5 each? [$100/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_6Dollar PX710401310000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $6 each? [$120/pack] 4 N/A
PX710401_Typical_Day_Cig_Smoke_70Dollar PX710401340000 How many cigarettes would you smoke in a typical day if they were $70 each? [$1,400/pack] 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Behavior Economics/Purchase Behavior

Release Date:

February 20, 2015

Definition

This assessment establishes the value of a product and related purchase behaviors, including the point at which the cost (i.e. in money, time) exceeds the user’s willingness to pay to use the cigarettes or other nicotine products; the rewarding value of the product.

Purpose

To assess the relative reward value or reinforcing efficacy of a tobacco product to a user through a purchase task.

Keywords

Cigarette purchase task, behavioral economics, cigarette value, purchase behavior, reward value