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Protocol - Distress Tolerance

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Description:

The Computerized Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT-C) is an automated version of the original Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (Quinn et al., 1996), which requires the construction of a mirror box and multiple copies of polygons to be traced. The MTPT-C simplifies the administration and scoring of this task.

In this task, participants are required to trace a red dot along the lines of a geometric shape (e.g., star) using the computer’s mouse. However, the mouse moves the red dot in the reverse direction. Each time the participant moves the mouse out of the lines or hesitates for more than 2 seconds, a buzzer sounds, and the dot moves back to the beginning. Three progressively more difficult shapes are used. The first two rounds last 1 minute each, while the third round of the MTPT-C can last up to 7 minutes. Participants may terminate the task at any point during the third round by pressing on the space bar. Distress tolerance is measured by the latency in seconds to task termination. Additionally, the number of errors per second (i.e., number of times the participant has to return to the starting position during the task, divided by the task time) is recorded to control for effects of skill on persistence.

Protocol:

See above; online download of the program:

caperlab.net/task-downloads

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

Computer with a mouse. Instrument is available online.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Interviewer-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adult

Participants:

Adults

Specific Instructions:

User can download the program for this task at:

caperlab.net/task-downloads

Selection Rationale

Measure of distress tolerance, a personality trait that appears to be related to smoking and tobacco use and behaviors.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Psychology Distress Tolerance Assessment Score 4719167 CDE Browser
Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Computerized Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT-C)
Center for Addictions, Personality, and Emotion Research (CAPER) website

General References

Original Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT):

Quinn, E. P., Brandon, T. H., & Copeland, A. L. (1996). Is task persistence related to smoking and substance abuse? The application of learned industriousness theory to addictive behaviors. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 186-190.

Validity of the MTPT:

Brandon, T. H., Herzog, T. A., Juliano, L., Irvin, J. E., Lazev, A., & Simmons, V. N. (2003). Pretreatment task-persistence predicts smoking cessation outcome. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 448-456.

Steinberg, M. L., Williams, J. M., Gandhi, K. K., Foulds, J., Epstein, E. E., & Brandon, T. H. (2012). Task persistence predicts smoking cessation in smokers with and without schizophrenia. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 850-858.

Computerized Version:

Strong, D. R., Lejuez, C. W., Daughters, S., Marinello, M., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). The computerized mirror tracing task, version 1. Unpublished manual.

Program available for download: www.addiction.umd.edu/research.htm

Predictive validity, but not with smoking:

Daughters, S. B., Lejuez, C. W., Bornovaolova, M. A., Kahler, C. W., Strong, D. R., & Brown, R. A. (2005). Distress tolerance as a predictor of early treatment dropout in a residential substance abuse treatment facility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 114, 729-734.

Protocol ID:

710701

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Average_Width PX710701220000 In easy mode, what is the average width in cm of the line of the pattern (based on initial titration step)? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Maximum_Percentage PX710701210000 In easy mode, what is the maximum percentage (out of 100) of tracing around the entire star? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Median_Distance PX710701200000 In easy mode, what is the median distance in cm of tracing? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Offline_Error PX710701160000 In easy mode, what is the number of times the subject traced outside the line? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Tooslow_Error PX710701170000 In easy mode, what is the number of times it took the subject too long to trace the pattern? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Total_Distance PX710701190000 In easy mode, what is the total distance in cm of tracing? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Total_Error PX710701150000 In easy mode, what is the total number of errors (off line + too slow) committed by the subject? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Easy_Total_Time PX710701180000 In easy mode, what is the length in seconds it took the subject to complete the task? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Average_Width PX710701380000 In hard mode, what is the average width in cm of the line of the pattern (based on initial titration step)? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Maximum_Percentage PX710701370000 In hard mode, what is the maximum percentage (out of 100) of tracing around the entire star? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Median_Distance PX710701360000 In hard mode, what is the median distance in cm of tracing? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Offline_Error PX710701320000 In hard mode, what is the number of times the subject traced outside the line? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Tooslow_Error PX710701330000 In hard mode, what is the number of times it took the subject too long to trace the pattern? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Total_Distance PX710701350000 In hard mode, what is the total distance in cm of tracing? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Total_Error PX710701310000 In hard mode, what is the total number of errors (off line + too slow) committed by the subject? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Hard_Total_Time PX710701340000 In hard mode, what is the length in seconds it took the subject to complete the task? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Average_Width PX710701300000 In medium mode, what is the average width in cm of the line of the pattern (based on initial titration step)? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Maximum_Percentage PX710701290000 In medium mode, what is the maximum percentage (out of 100) of tracing around the entire star? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Median_Distance PX710701280000 In medium mode, what is the median distance in cm of tracing? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Offline_Error PX710701240000 In medium mode, what is the number of times the subject traced outside the line? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Tooslow_Error PX710701250000 In medium mode, what is the number of times it took the subject too long to trace the pattern? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Total_Distance PX710701270000 In medium mode, what is the total distance in cm of tracing? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Total_Error PX710701230000 In medium mode, what is the total number of errors (off line + too slow) committed by the subject? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Medium_Total_Time PX710701260000 In medium mode, what is the length in seconds it took the subject to complete the task? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Embarrassed PX710701460000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel embarrassed? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Energetic PX710701450000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel energetic? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Excited PX710701390000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel excited? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Frustrated PX710701420000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel frustrated? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Happy PX710701430000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel happy? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Interested PX710701410000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel interested? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Mad PX710701400000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel mad? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Nervous PX710701480000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel nervous? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Proud PX710701470000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel proud? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Post_Upset PX710701440000 (After the test) To what extent do you feel upset? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Embarrassed PX710701120000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel embarrassed? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Energetic PX710701110000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel energetic? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Excited PX710701050000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel excited? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Frustrated PX710701080000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel frustrated? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Happy PX710701090000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel happy? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Interested PX710701070000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel interested? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Mad PX710701060000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel mad? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Nervous PX710701140000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel nervous? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Proud PX710701130000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel proud? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Pre_Upset PX710701100000 (Before the test) To what extent do you feel upset? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Average_Width PX710701560000 In quit mode, what is the average width in cm of the line of the pattern (based on initial titration step)? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Maximum_Percentage PX710701550000 In quit mode, what is the maximum percentage (out of 100) of tracing around the entire star? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Median_Distance PX710701540000 In quit mode, what is the median distance in cm of tracing? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Offline_Error PX710701500000 In quit mode, what is the number of times the subject traced outside the line? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Tooslow_Error PX710701510000 In quit mode, what is the number of times it took the subject too long to trace the pattern? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Total_Distance PX710701530000 In quit mode, what is the total distance in cm of tracing? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Total_Error PX710701490000 In quit mode, what is the total number of errors (off line + too slow) committed by the subject? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Quit_Total_Time PX710701520000 In quit mode, what is the length in seconds it took the subject to complete the task? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Session_Date PX710701020000 What date did the session take place? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Session_ID PX710701010000 What is the ID number of the session? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Session_Time PX710701030000 What time did the session take place? 4 N/A
PX710701_Mirror_Tracing_Subject_ID PX710701040000 What is the subject's ID number? 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Distress Tolerance

Release Date:

February 20, 2015

Definition

The ability to persist in a goal-directed activity when experiencing psychological distress or ability to tolerate psychological distress in general. One measurement approach is time spent on a frustrating behavioral task (i.e., task persistence). Distress tolerance appears to be a relatively stable trait. Across measures, it has been found to be predictive of substance-use outcomes, including smoking cessation. Individuals who are low in distress tolerance may have greater difficulty in maintaining tobacco abstinence in the face of withdrawal and other challenges.

Purpose

The Mirror Tracing Persistence Task (MTPT) has discriminated between smokers and nonsmokers and has predicted smoking cessation outcomes. The original MTPT required the construction or purchase of a physical box with a slanted mirror one side. The participant inserts his or her hand and traces geometric figures while only watching the hand in the mirror. This is extremely difficult and frustrating. Persistence is scored as the mean time on several trials prior to giving up. The Computerized MTPT (MTPT-C) was developed to make the test more accessible, as it did not require the physical equipment. It has potential as a screening instrument to identify individuals at high risk of initiating smoking or of smoking cessation failure. To date, the MTPT-C has predicted treatment dropout among substance abusers, but it has not been tested with smokers per se.

Keywords

Mirror Tracing Persistence Task, MTPT-C, personality, distress, tolerance, distress tolerance