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Protocol - Multigroup Ethnic Identity

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Description:

The Phinney Scale is a 12-item multiethnic identity measure used among adolescents and young adults.

Protocol:

In this country, people come from a lot of different cultures, and there are many different words to describe the different backgrounds or ethnic groups that people come from. Some examples of the names of ethnic groups are Hispanic, Black, Asian-American, Native American, Irish-American, and White. These questions are about your ethnicity or your ethnic group and how you feel about it or react to it.

Please fill in: In terms of ethnic group, I consider myself to be ______________________

Use the numbers below to indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement.

(4) Strongly agree; (3) Agree; (2) Disagree; (1) Strongly disagree

1. I have spent time trying to find out more about my ethnic group, such as its history, traditions, and customs.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

2. I am active in organizations or social groups that include mostly members of my own ethnic group.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

3. I have a clear sense of my ethnic background and what it means for me.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

4. I think a lot about how my life will be affected by my ethnic group membership.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

5. I am happy that I am a member of the group I belong to.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

6. I have a strong sense of belonging to my own ethnic group.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

7. I understand pretty well what my ethnic group membership means to me.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

8. To learn more about my ethnic background, I have often talked to other people about my ethnic group.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

9. I have a lot of pride in my ethnic group and its accomplishments.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

10. I participate in cultural practices of my own group, such as special food, music, or customs.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

11. I feel a strong attachment towards my own ethnic group.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

12. I feel good about my cultural or ethnic background.

[] 4 Strongly agree

[] 3 Agree

[] 2 Disagree

[] 1 Strongly disagree

Procedures and scoring:

1. The measures should also include an appropriate list from which participants can select a self-label for themselves and each parent.

The affirmation/belonging subscale includes items 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 12. The exploration subscale includes items 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10. (Item 3 loads on both subscales.)

Scores range from 1-4.

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

None

Equipment Needs

None

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment No
Specialized training No
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Self-administered questionnaire

Life Stage:

Adolescent

Participants:

The scale has been used among adolescents and young adults.

Specific Instructions:

None

Selection Rationale

The Phinney Scale considers ethnic identity, affirmation, belonging, and commitment and has good reliability among multiple ethnic groups. The original scale had 14 items and was reduced to 12 items, based on the factorial structure. In recent years, Phinney has proposed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised, which is a shorter, 10-item version (Phinney & Ong, 2007), but it has not been widely tested.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Psychology Ethnic Group Identity Assessment Scale 4719171 CDE Browser
Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Phinney, J. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176.

Phinney, J. S., & Ong, A. D. (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 271-281.

Roberts, R., Phinney, J., Masse, L., Chen, Y., Roberts, C., & Romero, A. (1999). The structure of ethnic identity in young adolescents from diverse ethnocultural groups. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 301-322.

General References

Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.

Phinney, J. S. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156-176.

Phinney, J. S. (1993). A three-stage model of ethnic identity development in adolescence. In M. E. Bernal & G. P. Knight (Eds.), Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 61-79). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Phinney, J. S. (1996). When we talk about American ethnic groups, what do we mean? American Psychologist, 51, 918-927.

Phinney, J., DuPont, S., Espinosa, C., Revill, J., & Sanders, K. (1994). Ethnic identity and American identification among ethnic minority adolescents. In A. Bouvy, F. van de Vijver, P. Boski, & P. Schmitz (Eds.), Journeys into cross-cultural psychology (pp. 167-183). The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Phinney, J. S. (2006). Ethnic identity exploration in emerging adulthood. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 117-134). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Roberts, R., Phinney, J., Masse, L., Chen, Y., Roberts, C., & Romero, A. (1999). The structure of ethnic identity in young adolescents from diverse ethnocultural groups. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 301-322.

Ruble, D. N., Alvarez, J., Bachman, M., Cameron, J., Fuligni, A., Garcia Coll, C., & Rhee, E. (2004). The development of a sense of "we": The emergence and implications of children’s collective identity. In M. Bennett & F. Sani (Eds.), The development of the social self (pp. 29-76). New York: Psychology Press.

Protocol ID:

710801

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Active_Ethnic_Group PX710801030000 I am activeIn organizations or social groups thatInclude mostly members of my own ethnic group. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Affect_Life PX710801050000 I think a lot about how my life will be affected by my ethnic group membership. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Clear_Sense PX710801040000 I have a clear sense of my ethnic background and whatIt means for me. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Ethnic_Group PX710801010000 Please fill in: In terms of ethnic group, I consider myself to be ______________________ 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Feel_Good_About PX710801130000 I feel good about my cultural or ethnic background. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Find_Out PX710801020000 I have spent time trying to find out more about my ethnic group, such asIts history, traditions, and customs. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Happy_Member PX710801060000 I am happy thatI am a member of the groupI belong to. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Learn_TalkAbout PX710801090000 To learn more about my ethnic background, I have often talked to other people about my ethnic group. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Participate_Clultural PX710801110000 I participateIn cultural practices of my own group, such as special food, music, or customs. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Pride_Accomplishment PX710801100000 I have a lot of prideIn my ethnic group andIts accomplishments. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Scoring PX710801140000 The affirmation/belonging subscaleIncludesItems 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 12. The exploration subscaleIncludesItems 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10. (Item 3 loads on both subscales.) Scores range from 1-4. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Sense_Belonging PX710801070000 I have a strong sense of belonging to my own ethnic group. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Strong_Attachment PX710801120000 I feel a strong attachment towards my own ethnic group. 4 N/A
PX710801_Ethnic_Identity_Understand_Membership PX710801080000 I understand pretty well what my ethnic group membership means to me. 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Multigroup Ethnic Identity

Release Date:

February 20, 2015

Definition

A general measure that assesses both cognitive and affective components of one’s sense of belonging and connectedness to a group of people that have a common history, a clear understanding of the meaning of one’s group membership, positive attitudes toward the group, familiarity with its history and culture, and involvement in its practices (Phinney, 1992; Phinney et al., 1994). The measure was derived from social psychology and was developed to capture a few dimensions of this multifaceted construct. The construct is dynamic and changes over time; as a result, development perspectives must be considered as well. It has its roots in ego identity (Erikson, 1968), which suggests that identity develops over time beginning in childhood and moves through a process of reflective observation. Ruble et al. (2004) also suggests that ethnic identity begins in childhood. By young adulthood, identities have been reached, and people have a secure sense of themselves as member of a group, although there is some evidence of some development during adulthood (Phinney, 2006). Ethnic identity has been associated with multiple psychological indicators and should be interpreted within the context of its use, particularly among adolescents.

Purpose

Covers concepts of ethnic identity, affirmation, belonging, and commitment.

Keywords

Phinney, Phinney Scale, acculturation, ethnic status, ethnicity