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Protocol - Physical Properties of Tobacco Products - Cigarettes and Filtered Cigars

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Description:

The 1999 Massachusetts Benchmark Study protocol includes physical methods and tests to evaluate the length, circumference, filter ventilation, tobacco weight, filter composition, and filter overwrap length of cigarettes and filtered cigars. This information is collected directly through visual inspections.

Protocol:

Cigarette Length:

Cigarette Length (Brown & Williamson)

Ten cigarettes, laid mouth to butt, are placed in a Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10. The total length of the ten cigarettes is determined. The filters from each cigarette are removed, and the total length of ten filters laid end to end is determined. The average length is calculated by dividing the total length by the number measured (10). Results are measured in millimeters.

Circumference

Cigarette Circumference (Brown & Williamson)

A Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10 is used for the circumference determination. Samples consist of 20 cigarettes, with each cigarette being tested individually. The AHL transports individual cigarettes to the testing station. The second module determines cigarette circumference by the linear displacement of a tape gauge that encircles the cigarette. Circumference results are measured to the one hundredth of a millimeter.

Tobacco Weight

Tobacco Weight (Philip Morris)

Tobacco weight is determined using an indirect method. A group of 15 cigarettes is weighed and the composite weight recorded. The paper and filters of the corresponding 15 cigarettes are then removed and weighed and the composite weight recorded. The tobacco weight is calculated by difference. The average tobacco weight per cigarette is obtained by dividing the difference by 15. Results are reported in grams.

Filter Type

Filter Type (Philip Morris)

Filter type is determined through visual or chemical techniques. After outer papers are removed, a visual examination is conducted. If a visual determination cannot be made, the sample is placed in acetone or sulfuric acid. Cellulose acetate dissolves in acetone and paper dissolves in sulfuric acid. Only 1 cigarette is required per determination.

Filter Ventilation

Tip Dilution (Philip Morris)

Ventilation is the percentage of total air flow drawn through the sample via the sides of the filter generally entering through perforations in the cigarette tipping paper. The Borgwaldt PV-10 is used to perform the measurement. Results represent the average filter tip ventilation of 15 cigarettes and are reported in percent (%).

Protocol Name from Source:

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Availability:

Publicly available

Personnel and Training Required

Staff must be trained in using the specialized equipment cited in the protocol.

Equipment Needs

A specially designed wooden measuring device is used to determine a cigarette’s or filtered cigar’s length. A Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10 is used to measure the circumference. Acetone or sulfuric acid.

Requirements
Requirement CategoryRequired
Major equipment Yes
Specialized training Yes
Specialized requirements for biospecimen collection No
Average time of greater than 15 minutes in an unaffected individual No
Mode of Administration

Physical Examination

Life Stage:

Participants:

N/A

Specific Instructions:

None.

Selection Rationale

This validated protocol is more accurate than self-report protocols, and it addresses many physical attributes of cigarettes and cigars with well-established instructions.

The protocols indicate different approaches for analyzing various physical characteristics of cigarettes and cigars, and the Working Group has recommended the specific approaches to use based on the following rationale:

For Cigarette Length, the method described for Brown & Williamson has two advantages over other protocols: it does not require any special equipment, and it measures both the cigarette length and the filter length.

For Tobacco Weight, the procedure described for Philip Morris is most detailed and does not require special equipment.

For Filter Type, the procedure used by Philip Morris was chosen because it provides specific instructions on how to proceed if visual examination is not conclusive.

Cigarette Circumference is of interest due to its use in marketing to women and for its implied relevance to reduced health risks.

Filter Ventilation has significant impact on smoke strength perception and health perceptions.

Language

English

Standards
StandardNameIDSource
Common Data Elements (CDE) Cigarette Property Assessment Text 4883616 CDE Browser
Process and Review

This section will be completed when reviewed by an Expert Review Panel.

Source

Massachusetts Department of Health. (2000, July 24). Appendix 3: Physical measurement methods. In 1999 Massachusetts Benchmark Study: Final report. Boston: Author. legacy.library.ucsf.edu/documentStore/g/o/r/gor03c00/Sgor03c00.pdf

General References

None.

Protocol ID:

730501

Variables:
Export Variables
Variable NameVariable IDVariable DescriptionVersiondbGaP Mapping
PX730501_Cigarettes_Average_Length PX730501030000 Ten cigarettes, laid mouth to butt, are placed in a Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10. The total length of the ten cigarettes is determined. The filters from each cigarette are removed, and the total length of ten filters laid end to end is determined. The average length is calculated by dividing the total length by the number measured (10). Results are measured in millimeters. 4 N/A
PX730501_Cigarette_Averageof20_Circumference PX730501040000 A Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10 is used for the circumference determination. Samples consist of 20 cigarettes, with each cigarette being tested individually. The AHL transports individual cigarettes to the testing station. The second module determines cigarette circumference by the linear displacement of a tape gauge that encircles the cigarette. Circumference results are measured to the one hundredth of a millimeter. 4 N/A
PX730501_FilterType_CelluloseAcetate_Paper_Cigarette PX730501080000 Filter type is determined through visual or chemical techniques. After outer papers are removed, a visual examination is conducted. If a visual determination cannot be made, the sample is placed in acetone or sulfuric acid. Cellulose acetate dissolves in acetone and paper dissolves in sulfuric acid. Only 1 cigarette is required per determination. 4 N/A
PX730501_FilterVentilation_Total_AirFlow_CigaretteCigar PX730501090000 Ventilation is the percentage of total air flow drawn through the sample via the sides of the filter generally entering through perforations in the cigarette tipping paper. The Borgwaldt PV-10 is used to perform the measurement. Results represent the average filter tip ventilation of 15 cigarettes and are reported in percent (%). 4 N/A
PX730501_Ten_Cigarettes_Total_Length_WithFilters PX730501010000 Ten cigarettes, laid mouth to butt, are placed in a Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10. The total length of the ten cigarettes is determined. The filters from each cigarette are removed, and the total length of ten filters laid end to end is determined. The average length is calculated by dividing the total length by the number measured (10). Results are measured in millimeters. 4 N/A
PX730501_Ten_Cigarettes_Total_Length_WithoutFilters PX730501020000 Ten cigarettes, laid mouth to butt, are placed in a Cerulean cd2 express or Borgwaldt S10. The total length of the ten cigarettes is determined. The filters from each cigarette are removed, and the total length of ten filters laid end to end is determined. The average length is calculated by dividing the total length by the number measured (10). Results are measured in millimeters. 4 N/A
PX730501_TobaccoWeight_15Cigarettes_Composite_WeightTotal PX730501050000 Tobacco weight is determined using an indirect method. A group of 15 cigarettes is weighed and the composite weight recorded. The paper and filters of the corresponding 15 cigarettes are then removed and weighed and the composite weight recorded. The tobacco weight is calculated by difference. The average tobacco weight per cigarette is obtained by dividing the difference by 15. Results are reported in grams. 4 N/A
PX730501_TobaccoWeight_15Cigarettes_CompositWeight_PapersFiltersOnly PX730501060000 Tobacco weight is determined using an indirect method. A group of 15 cigarettes is weighed and the composite weight recorded. The paper and filters of the corresponding 15 cigarettes are then removed and weighed and the composite weight recorded. The tobacco weight is calculated by difference. The average tobacco weight per cigarette is obtained by dividing the difference by 15. Results are reported in grams. 4 N/A
PX730501_TobaccoWeight_Average_Tobacco_Weight_PerCigarette PX730501070000 Tobacco weight is determined using an indirect method. A group of 15 cigarettes is weighed and the composite weight recorded. The paper and filters of the corresponding 15 cigarettes are then removed and weighed and the composite weight recorded. The tobacco weight is calculated by difference. The average tobacco weight per cigarette is obtained by dividing the difference by 15. Results are reported in grams. 4 N/A
Research Domain Information
Measure Name:

Physical Properties of Tobacco Products

Release Date:

June 24, 2015

Definition

This measure is a set of standard physical tests for cigarettes and filtered cigars capturing the following design descriptors: Length, Circumference, Tobacco weight, Filter type, Filter ventilation.

Purpose

The purpose of this measure is to evaluate and compare existing product modifications as well as new products and brands, which can help investigators understand the effect of design features on product chemistry.

Keywords

Agent, Tobacco Regulatory Research, TRR, tobacco product design, filtered cigar, cigarette, cigarette length, cigarette circumference, filter ventilation, tobacco weight, filter composition, tobacco product feature, tobacco design descriptor, physical test of cigarettes, tobacco brand, automatic hopper loader, 1999 Massachusetts Benchmark Study, Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris, tobacco product modifications